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"The First Crusade succeeded because of good military leadership". How far do you agree or disagree?

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A - Level Medieval History Mind Map on "The First Crusade succeeded because of good military leadership". How far do you agree or disagree?, created by El GB on 11/01/2015.
El GB
Mind Map by El GB, updated more than 1 year ago
El GB
Created by El GB over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

"The First Crusade succeeded because of good military leadership". How far do you agree or disagree?
  1. Military Leadership
    1. Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy possessed good military skill and managed to keep the princes from going for each other's throats. he was the Pope's representative so was constantly reminding them of their religious duty.
      1. Baldwin went off and managed to gain the county of Edessa. Even though he never returned to the crusade he proved to be extremely useful as the county provided a foothold in the east for the crusaders and somewhere to send to for help.
        1. Bohemond managed to use use his military know how and spies to infiltrate Antioch, which boosted the morale of the whole crusade and let the men believe that God was on their side again.
          1. Adhemar, although doubting of the authenticity of the Holy Lance, was happy to let the men believe in it as he saw the lift in morale it gave and recognised the usefulness of this lift.
            1. Godfey of Bouillon's idea to take down one of the siege towers they were using against the wall of Jerusalem and move it to a weaker spot during the night meant the crusaders could finally breach the walls and get into the city and finish their crusade.
    2. Muslim Disuntiy
      1. The countries of the Muslim Empire existed independent of each other.
        1. The Abbasid and Fatimid/ Sunni and Shia divide also meant that the Muslim world wasn't united.
          1. The Seljuk Turks were Muslims, yet they were happily going around conquering and fighting other Muslims.
            1. In the early 1090s many major leaders from both caliphates died, and even towards the end of the decade they were still squabbling amongst themselves over who should now take charge.
              1. The crusaders were lucky in all this disunity as it meant that whenever they had to fight any armies the men in them had no real loyalty to each other, their leader, or the cause.
                1. The small lordships were more concerned with fighting each other than fighting the crusaders.
                  1. The places the caliphates were based (Baghdad and Cairo) were very far away from the Holy Land.
                    1. They saw the crusade as a raid from Byzantium and failed to see the strong religious motives. they thought that the crusaders would soon become disillusioned with their cause and soon go away.
      2. Religious Fervour
        1. Great Christian warriors such as Charlemagne conquered many lands and it was believed that his success came from his strong belief in God.
          1. Normans/Franks had the strong religious zeal of the newly converted.
            1. The huge reactions to Urban's call showed that Christendom had been waiting for such a call.
              1. Men, women and children went with the strong belief that God would never desert them.
                1. When the crusaders did what Bishop Adhemar said during the siege of Antioch , their religious fervour boosted the morale and helped them get through the siege.
                  1. Discovery of the Holy Lance also ignited fervour that meant the morale rose massively.
                    1. Something that was constantly calling to the crusaders was the lure of Jerusalem. Part of the idea of the crusade was to count it as a pilgrimage there to remiss their sins, and all throught the journey this would have been foremost in the crusader's minds.
                      1. The Crusaders believed that once they reached Jerusalem they would receive the 'indulgence' and 'remission of sins', meaning that when they died they would go straight to heaven.
                        1. They also believed that they were God's servants.
        2. Conclusion
          1. All three were of key importance
            1. Military leadership
              1. Meant that tactics worked and that the princes weren't constantly at each others throats.
                1. The First Crusade succeeded because of the religious fervour of the men taking part, as it was because of that that the men had something to fight for and make them carry on
              2. Muslim Disunity
                1. Meant that the crusader army was able to defeat any Muslim armies they came up against easier than they should have done, especially as the bonds between the Muslim fighters were extremely weak
                2. Religious Fervour
                  1. Gave the crusaders an aim to work to and gave them an end point. it was their religious fervour which helped them to get through the hellish years that constituted the journey to the Holy Land.
              3. Introduction
                1. The First Crusade was preached by Pope Urban II on November 27th 1095 at the Council of Clermont in France.
                  1. There was a huge response and a large army of peasants set off on crusade. However, their crusade failed long before they reached the Holy Land.
                    1. The second wave was made up of real armies made up of knights and lords. They were much better at journeying and fighting off the opponents they met along the way.
                      1. They eventually succeeded in their crusade and took Jerusalem on 15th July 1099, three years after they origionally set off and four years after the crusade had first been preached.
                        1. Three possibel explanations for how they succeeded include:
                          1. Muslim disuntiy
                            1. Military leadership
                              1. Religious fervour
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