Oldawan - simple stone tools. Round
stones with one end chipped. Used to
chop and scrape. First kind of tools to
develop, Homo habilis
Acheulian - tear drop like stones, double edged
hand axes. Used as hand axes and cleavers by
Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis
Mousterian - sophisticated tool, finely worked
made of stone but may have other materials
attached as handles. Required skill and
learning. First used by Neandethals.
Upper Paleolithic - further refined
tools. Large variety of tools for many
different purposes. Shaped to fit into
handles. Made of many of many
materials including bone. First used by
Homo sapiens and Neanderthals.
Broca's and Wernicke's area
of the brain provide
evidence of development in
speech and communication.
Speech resulted in better hearing and
Pictures and symbols on cave walls,
carvings in bone and antlers, clay statues
show evidence of communication and
seasonal availabilty of
plants and animals
Division of labour
between males and
Domestication of Plants and Animals
A more settled lifestyle. Change
due to population expansion, food
shortage, climate change at end of
ice age and required to be near
constant source of water.
Wild wheat and barley grew. Grains at first
gathered but later sown as seeds.
Evidence: sickle-shaped wooden tools with
microliths (very small, sharp stone flakes)
set into them - used for harvesting and
quern stones - used for grinding grain.
Advantages: able to grow more food,
surplus food could be traded for other
things such as tools, more time
available for skill specialisation.
Disadvantages: monocultures = less genetic
variation, prone to disease, malnutrition due to
little variation, issues storing food over winter,
Animals - fossil evidence of animals all
around same age while animals that are
killed hunting tend to be various ages.
Advantages = ready supply of milk and
meat that is fresh, traded for other things,
used to carry heavy loads. Disadvantages
= selective breeding so less genetic
variation therefore susceptible to disease
which humans could catch.
Cooking made food softer and easier to digest.
Kills many microbes, reducing risk of disease.
Detoxify some plant toxins.
Keeps predators away.
Source of light.
Valgus Angle - the angle of the
femur. Shifts knees under centre
of gravity. Helps with balance
Pelvis - short and shallow, cup
shaped to support internal organs.
Better attachment for larger leg
Position of foramen magnum
allows head to be vertical and
reduces need for large neck
muscles as gravity assists.
Foramen Magnum -
moves from angle to
Nuchal crest -
smaller, no longer
require very large
all become less
from 'U' shape
and parallel to
a 'V' and more
Manipulative Ability of the Hand
Opposable thumb -
allows for precision
Fine motor control,
able to maniqulate