Macromolecules

Julia Castellani
Mind Map by Julia Castellani, updated more than 1 year ago
Julia Castellani
Created by Julia Castellani over 5 years ago
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Description

Macromolecules

Resource summary

Macromolecules
  1. Carbohydrates (major energy source)
    1. Monomers (Simple)
      1. Monosaccharides (C6H12O6)

        Annotations:

        • -5 (pentose) or 6 (hexose) carbons
        1. Glucose
          1. Fructose

            Annotations:

            • 2 of carbons are outside of ring
            1. Galactose
            2. Disaccharides (double sugars)

              Annotations:

              • molecules joined by condensation reactions (a water molecule is lost)
              1. Maltose (glucose + glucose)

                Annotations:

                • -alpha 1-4 linkages -formed by a condensation reaction (lose a water molecule)
                1. Sucrose (glucose + fructose)

                  Annotations:

                  • -a.k.a table sugar -most comes from beets
                  1. Lactose (galactose + glucose)

                    Annotations:

                    • -milk sugar
                2. Polysaccharides (Complex)

                  Annotations:

                  • multiple mono/disaccharides join
                  1. Storage Polysaccharides
                    1. Starch (plants)

                      Annotations:

                      • -Insoluble -alpha 1-4 linkages
                      1. Amylose (unbranched)
                        1. Amylopectin (branched)
                        2. Glycogen (animals)

                          Annotations:

                          • -insoluble; more branches than amylopectin -stored in liver and muscle tissue (skeletal) -alpha 1-4 + 1-6 linkages
                        3. Structural Polysaccharides
                          1. Cellulose (fibre)

                            Annotations:

                            • -linear, unbranched -forms fibrils which reinforce plant cell walls -cannot be digested by animals
                            1. Chitin

                              Annotations:

                              • -polymer of an amino sugar -makes up exoskeletons -chitin + calcium = hard -semi conductor under certain conditions
                        4. Proteins (Polypeptides)

                          Annotations:

                          • -50% of dry weight of cells -"molecular tools" -NATIVE CONFORMATION is the shape in which a protein functions best    -assisted by chaperone proteins -proteins can be DENATURED (unfold and become non-functional) by changes in temp, pH, or salt concentration 
                          1. Primary Structure (DNA blueprint)

                            Annotations:

                            • -sequence of amino acids -determined by a single gene -peptide bonds
                            1. Secondary Structure (regular, repeated backbone folding)
                              1. Alpha Helix (H-bonds b/w every 4th peptide bond)
                                1. Beta Pleated Sheet (H-bonds b/w polypeptide chains)
                                2. Tertiary Structure (irregular folding of a polypeptide via R-group interactions)

                                  Annotations:

                                  • -R-group (side chain) interactions -"Globular proteins" b/c chape is irregular and globular
                                  1. H-bonds
                                    1. Ionic bonds
                                      1. disulfide bridge (covalent)
                                        1. Hydrophobic
                                        2. Quaternary Structure (multiple polypeptides)

                                          Annotations:

                                          • -weak interactions/disulfide bridges (eg -s-s-) -each polypeptide chain is a SUBUNIT of the protein
                                        3. Enzymes (catalysts)

                                          Annotations:

                                          • -reduce activation energy required for a reaction to occur
                                          1. Thermodynamic Laws

                                            Annotations:

                                            • 1. total amt of energy in the universe is constant 2. Disorder (entropy) in the universe is always increasing
                                            1. Activation Energy

                                              Annotations:

                                              • amount of energy required to start a reaction
                                              1. Lock and Key Theory

                                                Annotations:

                                                • -one enzyme (loc) has a specific shape for one set of substrates (key)
                                                1. Induced-Fit Theory

                                                  Annotations:

                                                  • -shape of the active site changes somewhat after substrate(s) bind to it
                                                  1. Competitive Inhibition

                                                    Annotations:

                                                    • -"look-alike" molecule binds to active site -enzyme unable to bind with substrate -enzymes inactivated
                                                    1. Penicillin

                                                      Annotations:

                                                      • kills succeptible bacteria by inhibiting the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in cell wall biosynthesis
                                                      1. ACE Inhibitors

                                                        Annotations:

                                                        • Inhibit enzymes that make angiotensin II hormone (constricts blood vessels)
                                                        1. Ethanol

                                                          Annotations:

                                                          • antidote for methanol poisoning
                                                          1. Grapefruit

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Inhibit a drug-metabolizing enzyme in the small intestine
                                                          2. Non-Competitive Inhibition

                                                            Annotations:

                                                            • Molecules bind to a site adjacent to active cite and change the shape of the active site
                                                            1. Eg) Heavy metals
                                                            2. Allosteric Regulation

                                                              Annotations:

                                                              • Molecules bind to a site AWAY from active site
                                                              1. Allosteric activation
                                                                1. Allosteric deactivation
                                                                  1. Co-enzyme (vitamin aiding enzyme's action)
                                                                    1. Co-factor (mineral aiding enzyme's action
                                                                  2. Lipids (Energy and Structure)

                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                    • -C, O, H (no ratio) -hydrophobic
                                                                    1. Fats and Oils

                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                      • *Glycerol + 3 Fatty Acid chains *joined by ester linkages
                                                                      1. Saturated Fatty Acids

                                                                        Annotations:

                                                                        • -solid at room temp *Every carbon bond holds a Hydrogen -eg) animal fats
                                                                        1. Unsaturated Fatty Acids

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • -liquid at room temp *Some double bonds (more double bonds = healthier)
                                                                          1. Monounsaturated (1 double bond)
                                                                            1. Polyunsaturated (more than 1 double bond)
                                                                              1. Cis isomer (H's on same side)
                                                                                1. Trans isomer (H's on opposite side)
                                                                              2. Phospholipids

                                                                                Annotations:

                                                                                • -fat derivitives -important in cell membranes *AMPHIPATHIC (hydrophobic + hydrophillic regions)
                                                                                1. Hydrophilic head
                                                                                  1. Hydrophobic tails

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • -2 fatty acid chains
                                                                                  2. Sterols

                                                                                    Annotations:

                                                                                    • -flat ring structure of carbons
                                                                                    1. Cholesterol (most common)

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • -found in cell membranes -makes membranes less permeable
                                                                                      1. High-density Lipoprotein (good)
                                                                                        1. Low-Density Lipoprotein (bad)
                                                                                    2. Nucleic Acids / Polynucleotides (Structure, Functional)

                                                                                      Annotations:

                                                                                      • -in nucleus and mitochondria -polymers of nucleotides
                                                                                      1. Nucleotides
                                                                                        1. Consists of:
                                                                                          1. a nitrogen base
                                                                                            1. Pyrimidines (single ring)
                                                                                              1. Thymine (DNA) / Uracil (RNA)
                                                                                                1. Cytosine (DNA & RNA)
                                                                                                2. Purines (double ring)
                                                                                                  1. Adenine (DNA & RNA)
                                                                                                    1. Guanine (DNA & RNA)
                                                                                                  2. a 5-carbon sugar
                                                                                                    1. Deoxyribose (DNA)
                                                                                                      1. Ribose (RNA)
                                                                                                      2. a phosphate group
                                                                                                      3. 2 types
                                                                                                        1. Deoxyribonucleic Acid

                                                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                                                          • -Chemical basis for the gene -found in nuclei of cells
                                                                                                          1. Ribonucleic Acid

                                                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                                                            • -close copies of genes -found in cytoplasm
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