Heat Treatment of Carbon Steels

Billie Juniper
Mind Map by Billie Juniper, updated more than 1 year ago
Billie Juniper
Created by Billie Juniper about 6 years ago
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Basic Heat Treatments of Carbon Steel

Resource summary

Heat Treatment of Carbon Steels
  1. Annealing
    1. Effects
      1. Ductility
        1. Soften
          1. Relieve internal stresses
            1. Refine the Structure by Making it Homogenous
              1. Improve Cold-Working Properties
              2. Process
                1. Heating Above Re-Crystalisation Temperature
                  1. Then Cooling
                    1. Stages
                      1. 1: Recovery Phase
                        1. Removes crystal defects
                          1. Softens
                            1. Removes Internal Stresses
                          2. 2: Recrystallisation
                            1. Strain-Free Grains Nucleate and Grow
                              1. Replace Those Deformed by Internal Stresses
                            2. 3: Grain Growth
                              1. Microstructure coarsens
                                1. May Cause Less Than Satisfactory Mechanical Properties
                          3. Prepared for...
                            1. Shaping
                              1. Stamping
                                1. Forming
                              2. Normalising
                                1. Effects
                                  1. Refine Grain Structure
                                    1. When Steel is Heated to a High Temperature Carbon can Diffuse Throughout
                                      1. More Uniform Composition
                                      2. Improve Machinability
                                        1. Will Then Respond to Heat Treatment in a More Uniform Way
                                          1. Improve Ductility
                                            1. Relieve Stresses
                                              1. Improve Toughness
                                                1. Small Grains Formed
                                                  1. Harder
                                                    1. Tougher
                                                      1. Normal Tensile Strength
                                                        1. Not the Maximum Ductility Achieved by Annealing
                                                      2. Process
                                                        1. Annealing Process
                                                          1. Cooled in Still Air in a Furnace
                                                            1. Heating Steel to Above its Critical Limit
                                                              1. Soaked For Short Period
                                                              2. Prepared For...
                                                                1. Machinability
                                                                  1. Provides Dimensional Stability if Subjected to Further Heat Treatments
                                                                2. Hardening
                                                                  1. Effects
                                                                    1. Austenite to Pearlite CANNOT Occur
                                                                      1. Martensite Occurs
                                                                        1. Body Centred Tetragonal Lattice (BCT instead of BCC)
                                                                          1. Looks Needle-like Under Microscope
                                                                          2. Very Hard
                                                                            1. Brittle
                                                                            2. Process
                                                                              1. Cooling Steel Rapidly by Quenching
                                                                                1. Water of Brine
                                                                                  1. Most Rapid Cooling
                                                                                  2. Oil
                                                                                    1. Some Alloy Steels
                                                                                    2. Air
                                                                                      1. For Certain High Alloy Steels
                                                                                  3. Uses
                                                                                    1. Surface Hardening
                                                                                      1. Reason
                                                                                        1. Creates a Hardened Surface to Resist Wear and Tear
                                                                                          1. Shear Strength
                                                                                            1. Resist Wear and Tear
                                                                                          2. While Maintaining a Soft and Tough Interior or Core
                                                                                            1. Absorbs Shock
                                                                                          3. Uses
                                                                                            1. Gears
                                                                                              1. Ball Bearings
                                                                                                1. Train Wheels
                                                                                          4. Tempering
                                                                                            1. Effects
                                                                                              1. Transformation of Martensite into less brittle structures
                                                                                                1. Increase in Toughness
                                                                                                  1. Decrease in Hardness
                                                                                                    1. Relieve Stresses
                                                                                                      1. Reduce Brittleness
                                                                                                      2. Process
                                                                                                        1. Reheating
                                                                                                        2. Results
                                                                                                          1. Transforms Martensite Into More Stable Pearlite
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