Fairness is what justice really is.

Caitlin Kumala
Mind Map by Caitlin Kumala, updated more than 1 year ago
Caitlin Kumala
Created by Caitlin Kumala about 6 years ago


English Essay about Justice using texts Twelve Angry Men and A Time to Kill.

Resource summary

Fairness is what justice really is.
  1. A Time to Kill
    1. Procedures
      1. Precedent case - The last case of white men raping a black girl resulted in the white men being let off.
        1. Choosing the jury - more black people, more chance of acquittal for Carl Lee. Prosecution and defence try to out manoeuvre each other by making generalisations of people to make an idyllic jury. The prosecution purges the jury of anyone black, whereas the defence tries to keep young men who are fathers, so they are able to identify with the defendant's situation, Is that really justice or legal manoeuvring?
          1. Prosecution bribes the judge, he also receives the jury list first. Venue change for more black people in the jury - denied.
            1. "The eyes of the law are human eyes" - KKK embodiment of the blind hatred and racism present. Bird's Eye Angle - Riot between KKK and black protestors reflect the prejudicial hatred within in the court room, an obvious factor of injustice. Many juxtaposing shots of the segregation present in the Missipi County, in the court room and the jail cells.
              1. If the defence wins or loses, justice will be served.
                1. "America is a wall and you are on the other side" - Metaphor for the racial segregation.
                  1. Pathos manipulation by the prosecution - bring up the mother of the victim and Deputy Looney, who was accidentally shot in the leg, resulting in its amputation, Dehumanises Carl Lee by attempting to display the ruin that he's caused in people's lives from his actions. Pathos is later utilised in Jake's closing arguments in such a graphic way that obviously impacts the jury, as seen in close up shots of solemn expressions and crying.
                    1. Prosecution's psychologist was unreliable - had not identified the accused as legally insane over 11 years of his working life. A psychologist later disagreed on one of the cases, admitting the patient into special care for his mental issues. Reliance on expert opinions can derail justice.
                    2. Personalities and Personal Contexts
                      1. Socioeconomics. Both Jake and Carl Lee are struggling financially, with Jake unable to support his family and Carl Lee living in poverty with his family starving while he is in jail. Rufus, as seen in a long shot of his workplace, is wealthy and is able to afford a number of assistants, thus leaving Jake and Carl Lee at a disadvantage.
                        1. Jake has a daughter. He is empathetic with Carl Lee's situation, therefore making him passionate about defending his client. He also believes that the case will bring him fame and boost his career. He is young and ambitious.
                          1. Reputation - Rufus Buckley is a renowned lawyer, known for winning many cases. He lives a prestigious life due to his career. Jake is known for associations with the black community and working in a failing law firm.
                            1. "Justice is never going to be evenhanded, it will remain nothing more than a reflection of our own prejudices."
                              1. Rufus Buckley is an arrogant District Attorney, who is extremely forceful in getting people to say what he needs, i.e. W.T Bass, the psychiatrist into admitting his that he is a convicted felon.
                                1. Dominant personality in the jury.
                              2. Twelve Angry Men
                                1. Personalities and Personal Contexts
                                  1. Juror 7
                                    1. Idiosyncratic feature of always using baseball terminology whilst discussing case.. His immaturity disables him to examine the case properly, leading to an unjust verdict on his part. 'Baseball tickets burning a hole in your pocket'' conveys that he believes the game is more important than the boy's life.
                                    2. Juror 3
                                      1. Tempestuous and a slave to his emotions. Stage direction of him lunging towards Juror 8 in climax of play orchestrates his excitability and how it changes his perception of the case by dragging his emotions in. Constant reference to personal anecdotes of his son, which clouds his judgement of the boy. "It's not your boy' dramatic moment of play where he realises his obscured judgment and allows justice to run its course.
                                      2. Juror 8
                                        1. Quintessential American citizen. Remains calm, though assertive throughout the discussion. Stage direction of Juror 8 staring out the window illustrates that he has a pensive mind and is a deep thinker. 'Prejudice obscures the truth' Juror 8 challenges Juror 10's discrimination against the boy's ethnicity. Rose employs this line to unveil the human element derailing justice. Personality can also justice prevail, and Juror 8 is a prime example.
                                      3. Procedures
                                        1. 'People make mistakes'.- Reliability and accuracy of witnesses. The belief that people are always correct and completely honest even if they are under the oath is tested. Testimonies from witnesses are exposed as tentative when thoroughly examined, Thus systematic system is revealed to have another flaw in its reliance on witnesses.
                                          1. 'Fair trial' Due to the defendant's socioeconomic background, he was not able to afford his own lawyer, therefore the court appointed one to him. Juror 8 introduces this notion stating that "he let too many things go by...little things that...". The ellipsis signifies the doubt Juror 8 has on the defence lawyer. He even says that 'It's the kind of case that brings him nothing', denoting that the lawyer did not fight for the boy's iife.
                                            1. Misleading evidence - The knife, in court was first said to be unique. During a climatic scene in the play, Juror 8 pulls out another knife. These two props bare a striking resemblance, thus proving that the knife is common. This unveils yet another insuffiency of 'fairness' this case precedes.
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