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Causes of River Floods

Description

Rivers, Floods and Management- Causes of River Floods
littlestephie
Mind Map by littlestephie, updated more than 1 year ago
littlestephie
Created by littlestephie over 6 years ago
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Resource summary

Causes of River Floods
  1. Physical Factors
    1. Rock Type
      1. Impermeable rock encourages rapid overland flow
      2. Steep Slopes
        1. Mountain Environments encourage rapid transfer of water
        2. Long Profile
          1. Steep upper course and flat lower course means a build up of water in lowland areas
          2. Drainage Density
            1. High drainage density means water reaches the river quickly
            2. Snowmelt
              1. When snow/ice melts it means lots of water running over ice
              2. Intense and Prolonged Rainfall
                1. Summer/tropical storms and monsoons means flooding
              3. Human Factors
                1. Building Construction
                  1. Building on floodplains creates impermeable surfaces and drains filling river channel rapidly
                  2. Deforestation
                    1. Little evapotranspiration happening
                    2. Agriculture
                      1. Arable farming means soil is left bare to the weather, so ploughing creates grooves meaning flooding
                      2. Ineffective Flood Management and Warning Systems
                        1. Lack of flood defence/badly maintained culverts/bridges means flooding
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