CYOA-Concepts of Ch. 2

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Overview of Chapter 2, 2.3-2.4

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CYOA-Concepts of Ch. 2
1 Changes in Energy and Chemical Reactions
1.1 Chemical Reactions involve changes in bonds
1.2 9. How reactions occur
1.2.1 Reactions that release energy occur on their own
1.2.2 Reactions that absorb energy need an outside source
1.3 10. Parts of a reaction
1.3.1 Chemical reaction - process that changes one set of chemicals into another
1.3.2 Reactants - Elements/Compounds entering a chemical reaction
1.3.3 Products - Elements/Compounds produces by a chemical reaction
1.3.4 Activation energy - Energy needed to start a reaction
1.4 Organisms must have a source of energy in order to carry out chemical reactions
2 Functions of Enzymes
2.1 What enzymes are
2.1.1 Substrates - reactants of enzyme reactions, bind to active site of enzymes
2.1.2 Provide a site where reactants are brought together to react
2.1.3 Are biological catalysts, are in cells
2.1.4 Catalyst - Substance that speeds up rate of Chemical Reaction
2.2 Uses of enzymes
2.2.1 Make needed materials
2.2.2 Transfer information
2.2.3 Control chemical pathways
2.2.4 release energy
2.3 8. How enzymes are affected
2.3.1 Activity can be affected by temperature, pH, and regulatory molecules
2.3.2 Can be switched "on" and "off" by regulatory molecules
3 Qualities of Carbon
3.1 Carbon bonds
3.1.1 1. Elements it can bond with
3.1.1.1 Can bond with many elements including H, O, P, S, and N
3.1.1.2 Can form molecules of life with these elements
3.1.2 2. Types of bonds
3.1.2.1 Can form strong covalent bonds
3.1.2.2 Carbons can bind to each other, forming chains
3.1.2.3 Can form single, double, or triple covalent bonds
3.2 Have 4 valence electrons
4 The four groups of macromolecules
4.1 Smaller units - monomers - join to form larger units - polymers
4.2 Carbohydrates
4.2.1 Consist of C,H, and O
4.2.2 3. Uses of Carbs
4.2.2.1 Main source of energy
4.2.2.2 Also used for structure
4.2.3 Is sugar, stored as starch
4.2.4 4. Types of sugar molecules
4.2.4.1 Polysaccharides - molecules composed of several sugars - includes glycogen
4.2.4.2 Monosaccharides - molecules that are only one sugar - includes glucose, galactose, fructose
4.3 Lipids
4.3.1 consist of mostly C and H
4.3.2 Uses of lipids
4.3.2.1 Another form of energy storage
4.3.2.2 Also used for waterproofing
4.3.3 Are formed when glycerol combines with fatty acids
4.3.4 6. Types of lipids
4.3.4.1 Saturated - fatty acids cannot hold any more H atoms
4.3.4.2 Unsaturated - Contains at least 1 C=C bond
4.4 Proteins
4.4.1 Consist of N, C, H, and O
4.4.2 made of amino acids - made of an amino acid group and a carboxyl group
4.4.3 7. Uses of proteins
4.4.3.1 Control rate of reactions
4.4.3.2 Form important cellular structures
4.4.3.3 Regulate cell processes
4.4.3.4 Transport substances in and out of cells
4.4.3.5 Fight disease
4.4.4 Amino acid bonding
4.4.4.1 Any amino acid can join with another
4.4.4.2 By bonding an amino group to a carboxyl group
4.5 Nucleic Acids
4.5.1 Store and transmit genetic information
4.5.2 Are DNA and RNA
4.5.3 5. What they are made of
4.5.3.1 Consists of H, O, N, C, and P
4.5.3.2 Made of nucleotides - made of 5-carbon sugar, P group, and nitrogenous base
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