Internet

sierra_rogers
Mind Map by sierra_rogers, updated more than 1 year ago
sierra_rogers
Created by sierra_rogers about 5 years ago
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Description

Terms for Chapter 9.

Resource summary

Internet

Annotations:

  • The most used network in the world. Not one network, but a network of networks: national and state government agencies, non-profit organizations, and for-profit companies. To exchange data, these networks must agree to use Internet protocols.
1 Tier 1 Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

Annotations:

  • Provide services to their customers and sell access to tier 2 and 3 ISPs
1.1 Tier 2 ISPs

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  • Connect with tier 1 ISPs - Provide services to their customers and sell to local ISPs
1.1.1 Tier 3 ISPs

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  • Connect to tier 1 or 2 ISPs - sell access to individuals.
2 Internet Access Points
2.1 Network Access Points (NAPs)

Annotations:

  • Connect tier 1 ISPs together. Sometimes large tier 2 and 3 ISPs also have access directly to NAPs - Only about a dozen NAPs in the U.S. which are run by common carriers such as Sprint and AT&T
2.1.1 Packet Exchange Charges

Annotations:

  • Peering: ISPs at the same level usually do not charge each other for exchanging messages (Tier 1 to Tier 1 or Tier 2 to Tier 2) Higher level ISPs charge lower level ISPs Tier 3 ISPs charge individuals and corporate users or access
2.2 Metropolitan Area Exchange (MAEs)

Annotations:

  • Connect tier 2 ISPs together
3 Ways to connect to an ISP
3.1 Point of Presence (POP)

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  • Used to connect to an ISP, a place at which ISP provides service to its customers.
3.2 Cable/DSL

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  • How an individual user connects to an ISP. The userID and password are checked by Remote Access Server
3.3 Corporate Users

Annotations:

  • Access the POP through T1, T3, or ATM OC-3 connections
4 OC 48, OC 192

Annotations:

  • Backbone circuit for national ISPs, 10 Gbps
5 Internet Access Methods
5.1 Broadband

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  • Most methods of accessing the internet are just called "broadband access" Doesn't refer to analog communication, rather it just means high speed
5.2 DSL

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  • A point to point technology, designed to provide high speed data transmission over traditional telephone lines.
5.2.1 Asymmetric DSL (ADSL)

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  • The most common type of DSL, uses frequency division multiplexing.
5.3 Cable Modems

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  • a type of modem that connects a computer or local network to broadband Internet service through the same cable that supplies cable television service.
5.3.1 Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications (DOCSIS)

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  • Most common protocol used for cable modems, not a formal standard.
5.3.2 Cable Modem Architecture

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  • Similar to DSL: use shared multipoint circuits instead of point-to-point technology. Equipment: CMTS: Cable Modem Termination System, used for upstream traffic only. - Fiber node with an optical electrical converter. - Combiner (combines Internet traffic with TV video traffic)
5.4 Customer Premises Equipment (CPE)

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  • Installed at the customer's location and Contains a line splitter and directs traffic to phone network and DSL modems
5.5 Local Loops

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  • Connect to the MDF, MDF splits neighorhood voice and data traffic to phone network and DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer)
5.5.1 Traditional telephone lines (local loop)

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  • Has limited capacity due to telephone and switching equipment at the end offices. constrained by 4 KHz voice channel Much higher bandwidth possible
5.6 WiMax

Annotations:

  • • Wireless standard developed to connect to Ethernet LANs • Can be used as fixed or mobile wireless • Some vendors refer to it as 4G • ISPs are beginning to provide this service
6 Internet Governance

Annotations:

  • no one organization operates the internet. closest thing: Internet Society (ISOC)
6.1 Internet Society (ISOC)

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  • ISOC is an open membership professional society, that works in three areas: public policy, education, standards
6.1.1 IETF

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  • Internet Engineering Task Force: Concerned with evolution of Internet architecture and smooth operation of Internet
6.1.2 IESG

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  • Internet Engineering Steering Group: responsible for management of the standard process. Establishes and administers rules in creating standards.
6.1.3 IAB

Annotations:

  • Internet Architecture Board, provides strategic architectural oversight, guidance.
6.1.4 IRFT
7 The future of the Internet
7.1 NGI

Annotations:

  • Next Generation Internet funded by NSF, A group called University Corporation for Advanced Internet Development (UCAID) started with 34 universities
7.2 ARDNOC

Annotations:

  • Advanced Research and Development Network Operations Center funded by the Canadian Government, who also developed CA*Net
7.3 GIgapops

Annotations:

  • Similar to NAPs, will provide access to the Internet in the future.
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