Animal and Plant Behaviour

Jackie Yu
Mind Map by Jackie Yu, updated more than 1 year ago
Jackie Yu
Created by Jackie Yu over 4 years ago
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Mind Map on Animal and Plant Behaviour, created by Jackie Yu on 12/09/2015.

Resource summary

Animal and Plant Behaviour
1 Animals
1.1 Animals exhibit a wide range of instinctive and learned behaviours, such as courtship displays and parental care. These types of behaviours help them to survive. Animals communicate with each other in a variety of ways, using sounds, chemicals, body language and spoken language.
1.2 Sexual Reproduction
1.2.1 Many animals and birds don’t mate for life. They have several different sexual partners in their lifetime or during one breeding season. Some animals are monogamous - they mate with one partner for life. This behaviour is seen in puffins and albatrosses. It is very unusual in mammals.
1.2.2 Birds
1.2.2.1 Animals and birds use different ways to attract a mate. Many male animals and birds use courtship behaviour to attract a female. This is seen in the spectacular way male frigate birds inflate their large red throat sacks, in the colourful display of feathers in male peacocks
1.2.3 Alpha Male
1.2.3.1 Often there is one dominant ‘alpha male’ that mates with all of the sexually-mature females in his group. The alpha male is usually the largest or strongest male. This behaviour is seen in lions and also sea-lions.
1.3 Parental Care
1.3.1 Many animals and birds look after their young in a variety of ways. These behaviours are called parental care. This gives their young the best possible chance of survival to ensure that the genes of the parents are passed on.
1.3.1.1 Mammals
1.3.1.1.1 Female mammals carry their young in their uterus before they are born. An animal that does this – gives birth to living young rather than laying eggs - is said to be a viviparous animal. Once born, mammals care for their young by producing milk. The mother’s milk provides the baby with all the nutrients it needs. Suckling from their mother is also a relatively safe place to feed.
1.3.1.2 Birds
1.3.1.2.1 All newborn chicks are fed by one or both of their parents until they are old enough to leave their parents and live on their own. The killdeer bird displays an unusual type of parental care behaviour. It nests on the ground and when predators try to take its eggs or chicks, it lures them away by pretending it has a broken wing. It’s a risky strategy for the parent bird but helps to give their young a good chance of survival.
1.3.1.3 Fish
1.3.1.3.1 Paternal care occurs in perhaps as many as half of the known species of certain families of teleost fish. One well-known example of paternal care is in seahorses, where males brood the eggs in a brood pouch until they are ready to hatch. In jawfish, the female lays the eggs and the male then takes them in his mouth. A male can have up to 400 eggs in his mouth at one time. The male can't feed while he hosts the young, but as the young get older, they spend more time out of the mouth.[23] During the breeding season, male three-spined sticklebacks defend nesting territories. Males attract females to spawn in their nests and defend their breeding territory from intruders and predators. After spawning, the female leaves the male’s territory and the male is solely responsible for the care of the eggs. During the ~6-day incubation period, the male ‘fans’ (oxygenates) the eggs, removes rotten eggs and debris, and defends the territory. Even after embryos hatch, father sticklebacks continue t
1.4 Types of behaviour
1.4.1 Other behaviours are learned. These are called conditioned behaviours, and there are four types: operant, habituation, imprinting and classical.
1.4.1.1 Operant Conditioning
1.4.1.1.1 This type of learned behaviour occurs by rewarding or punishing an animal. Teaching a dog to jump through a hoop by giving it treats is operant conditioning. This type of conditioning can be used to train
1.4.1.1.1.1
1.4.1.2 Habituation
1.4.1.2.1 Habituation is where an animal becomes steadily used to a stimulus or situation. It is sometimes known as a simple learning or desensitisation process. An example of habituation would be the action of prairie dogs which have lived alongside humans for some time. They have become familiar with the scents of humans in their territory and no longer make alarm calls when a scent is found.
1.4.1.3 Imprinting
1.4.1.3.1 Imprinting is the tendency of young animals to follow the first moving object they see. This is usually the mother. Imprinting usually occurs during a short, but critical, period of a young animal’s life.
1.4.1.4 Classical conditioning
1.4.1.4.1 This type of learned behaviour occurs without rewarding or punishing. Many dogs will run towards the door to begin their walk when their owner shakes their lead. This is classical conditioning. A Russian scientist called Ivan Pavlov completed a famous experiment into classic conditioning. He observed that his dog produced lots of saliva when he showed it food. Every time he fed his dog, he rang a bell for a short while afterwards. Eventually, just ringing the bell alone was enough to make his dog salivate. It had been conditioned into salivating when it heard the bell - and not just when it saw food.
2 Plants
2.1 Plants communicate too - they might produce chemicals to warn of attack.
2.2 Chemical communication
2.2.1 Some plants release chemicals to warn nearby plants of attack
2.2.2 others have brightly-coloured flowers or flowers with bold patterns to attract insects for pollination
2.2.3 other plants attract pollinating insects with enticing scents
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