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Created by mtgbowen over 4 years ago


The processes involved in each stage of aerobic respiration in living organisms

Resource summary

1 Glycolysis
1.1 Occurs whether O2 is present or not (aerobic and anaerobic)
1.2 Occurs in the cytoplasm
1.3 STAGE 1:
1.3.1 One phosphate is added to a glucose molecule (glucose is phosphorylated) Glucose-6-phosphate is formed
1.3.2 Glucose phosphate is isomerised Fructose phosphate is formed
1.3.3 Fructose phosphate is phosphorylated. Fructose 1,6- bisphosphate is formed
1.3.4 2 ATP molecules are required
1.4 STAGE 2
1.4.1 Fructose bisphosphate is converted into two triose phosphate molecules
1.5 STAGE 3
1.5.1 Triose phosphate is converted into glycerate phosphate (GP)
1.5.2 2 ATP and 2 NADH are made
1.6 STAGE 4
1.6.1 GP is converted into 2 Pyruvate molecules
1.6.2 2 ATP molecules are produced.
1.7 PRODUCTS: 2ATP. 2 NADH. 2 Pryuvate
2 Link Reaction
2.1 Takes place in the Matrix of the mitochondria
2.2 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase catalyses the removal of 2 H atoms from pyruvate
2.2.1 H is accepted by NAD, forming NADH
2.3 Pyruvate Decarboxylase catalyses the removal of CO2 from Pyruvate
2.4 Acetate remains
2.4.1 2- carbon molecule.
2.4.2 combines with CoA to produce AcetylCoa. Carries acetate into the Krebs cycle
2.5 PRODUCTS: 2 CO2 (excreted). 2 NADH (oxidative phosphorylation). 2 AcetylCoa (krebs cycle).
3 Krebs cycle
3.1 Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondria
3.2 STAGE 1: Acetate dissociates from AcetylCoA.
3.2.1 Bonds with Oxaloacetate, forming Citrate
3.3 STAGE 2: Citrate is dehydrogenated and decarboxylated.
3.3.1 CO2 is excreted
3.3.2 H is accepted by NAD
3.3.3 A 5- carbon compound remains
3.4 STAGE 3: the 5- carbon molecule is dehydrogenated and decarboxylated.
3.4.1 CO2 is excreted
3.4.2 H is accepted by NAD
3.4.3 A 4- carbon molecule remains
3.5 STAGE 4: the 4- carbon molecule goes through a series of reactions
3.5.1 one ATP is produced
3.5.2 one NADH is produced
3.5.3 one FADH is produced
3.6 PRODUCTS: 3 NADH molecules. 1 FADH molecule. 1 ATP molecule. 2 CO2 molecules. 1 regenerated oxaloacetate molecule
4 Oxidative phosphorylation
4.1 Takes place in the Cristae of the mitochondria
4.2 NADH and FADH release their H atoms.
4.2.1 Each H splits into a H+ ion and an electron.
4.3 The electron is picked up by an electron carrier chain
4.3.1 electrons release energy as they pass along the chain. electron is accepted by oxygen and combined with a H+ ion, forming water.
4.4 H+ ions are pumped from the matrix into the membrane
4.4.1 This created an electrochemical gradient across the membrane. H+ ions diffuse back across the membrane through the channel protein ATP synthase. ATP is produced.
4.5 This is known as chemiosmosis
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