The body and thermal environment

Ellen Rita
Mind Map by Ellen Rita, updated more than 1 year ago
Ellen Rita
Created by Ellen Rita almost 6 years ago
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Uni Ergonomics Mind Map on The body and thermal environment, created by Ellen Rita on 12/24/2015.

Resource summary

The body and thermal environment
  1. Important components of the thermal environment
    1. Environmental
      1. Radiant temperature
        1. Black globe thermometer
        2. Air temperature and Humidity
          1. Wet and dry bulb thermometers
          2. Air movement (velocity)
            1. Anemometer
          3. Person
            1. Human activity
              1. Clothing worn (CLO)
            2. The body in hot/cold environments
              1. Human Thermoregulation - the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different
                1. Skin
                  1. Helps with homeostasis- lose excess body heat- vasodilation and sweating
                    1. Insulating layer (hair stands on end when cold) trapping heat
                    2. Arterioles
                      1. Vasodilation
                        1. Vasoconstriction
                        2. Muscles
                          1. Shivering
                      2. Heat exchanged between the body and the environment
                        1. Heat Radiation
                          1. Covection
                            1. The factor determining the heat transport process in the human body
                              1. The blood circulation system can transfer heat from one part of the body to another by controlling the vessels
                            2. Conduction
                              1. Clothes which contain a lot of air and whose material has a low thermal conductivity, are good heat isolators
                              2. Evaporation
                                1. Other factors
                                  1. Clothing worn (CLO)
                                    1. Work/Activity
                                      1. Metabolic heat production
                                  2. Cold environments - Noakes 2000 (exercise and the cold)
                                    1. What types of outcomes of the cold are possible (LAND)
                                      1. Fatality (hypothermia), frostbite, reduced performance of the muscles – combined effects of cold, wind and wet
                                        1. Shivering (increased metabolic rate but also increased vasodilation and blood flow and cooling)
                                          1. Clothing can decrease the rate of temperature drop.
                                          2. What types of outcomes of the cold are possible (WATER)
                                            1. Fatality (hypothermia), muscle cooling (discomfort, potentially leading to drowning)
                                              1. Cold shock response (very cold water at 10 degree C. Respiratory and musculoskeletal response, hyperventilation, reduced duration of breath holding, disorientation and panic.
                                                1. Shivering (increased metabolic rate but also increased vasodilation and blood flow and cooling)
                                                  1. Different rates of cooling of skeletal muscles (dependent on body shape). Exercise can reduce the insulating capacity of muscles in the water. Potentially greatest muscle cooling in the arms and can inhibit the ability to swim and keep the head above the water. Variations in advice for survival.
                                                    1. Clothing can affect the rate of temperature drop.
                                                    2. Measurements
                                                      1. Body shape
                                                        1. Clothing
                                                          1. Distance and time
                                                            1. Body temperature, air temperature, wind speed, humidity, water temperature
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