1.1.1 Identity and compare species.
Measure size and compare
188.8.131.52 Definition: clarity; how clear the specimen appears.
Magnification: amount of engagement of an image.
Orientation: way in which something appears to be
184.108.40.206.1 Depth of Field: refers to layers, 3-D
effect that is viewable by changing
fine adjustment under high power.
Width of Field: distance across the
diameter of your field of view, used
to estimate the size of a specimen.
220.127.116.11.1.1 Micrometer= metric
unit of measure.
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 Objective: degree
Low, Med, High.
22.214.171.124.1.2 Steps of storing a
126.96.36.199.1.2.1 Steps to focusing
188.8.131.52.184.108.40.206 1) Turn light on and leave it on.
2) Align the slide on the stage
and stage with the stage clips.
3)Turn the ocular towards you.
4) Bring your specimen into
view, and center it in your field.
5) Adjust the diaphragm for the
"best" lighting. 6) Sharpen your
image with fine adjustment. 7)
Using the revolving nose piece,
turn to your medium power to
objective. 8) Using the coarse
adjust. sharpen your image. 9)
Turn the high power objectives
into place using the nose piece.
Using only the fine adjustment
knob, fine tune your image. 10)
May change light for a better
220.127.116.11.1.2.2 1) Turn off light and allow to sit for 5 min to cool
down. 2) Turn the stage all the way down. 3) Return
objective to low. 4) Remove slide. Rest the stage
clips on the stage. 5) Loosely wrap and secure the
electrical cord. 6) Turn the ocular over the body
tube. 7) Cover the microscope with the jacket. 8)
Carry the microscope with two hands. 9) Place the
microscope in the closet with the ocular pointing
18.104.22.168.2 Polymers: Triglyceride and phospholipid.
22.214.171.124.3 Nucleic Acids
126.96.36.199.3.1 Monomer: Nucleotide
188.8.131.52.3.2 Polymer: DNA and RNA
3 Cell Structure
3.1 Animal Cell
184.108.40.206 1) Chloroplast: controls chlorophyll to help cell trap light to make food.
2) Endoplasmic Reticulum: tube network in cytoplasm where cell
substances are made. 3) Nuclear Membrane: controls movement of
materials in and out of the nucleus. 4) Nucleus: controls cell activities.
5) Cytoplasm: contains cell materials. 6) Cell wall: surrounds plant cell:
gives shape and support to the cell. 7) Ribosomes: proteins are made
in these. 8) Mitochondria: rod-shaped bodies that release energy for
cell use. 9) Golgi Bodies: bodies that store and release chemicals for
cell use. 10) Cell Membrane: controls movement of materials in and out
of the cell. 11) Chromosomes: holds the code that controls cell. 12)
Vacuole: stores water and dissolved materials in plant cells. 12)
Smooth E.R: creates and stores lipids (steroids). 13) Mitosis:: contains
enzymes. 14) Vesicle: used to transport materials. 15) Flagella: whip-like tail.
3.1.2 Does not contain cell wall.
3.1.3 Contain centrioles
3.2 Plant Cell
3.2.2 COntains Vacuole and chloroplasts.
3.3 Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
3.3.1 5 Kingdom
4 Cell Transport Mechanism
4.1 Moving molecules across the cell membrane.
4.1.1 Passive Transport: Does not expend energy.
220.127.116.11 Diffusion; Movement of molecules is random. When they
bump each other, they push each other away. When they are
highly concentrated, they bump into each other more often.
18.104.22.168.1 High concentration to low concentration.
DOWN a concentration gradient. "DOWN
22.214.171.124.2 When molecules have reached equal
concentrations in both locations, diffusion ends - Equilibrium.
126.96.36.199.2.1 Molecules continue moving, but they move
in both directions equally. No Net Change.
188.8.131.52 Osmosis: moves water molecules across
cell membrane (in or out of cells).
Molecules still move down the
184.108.40.206.1 Osmostic Pressure- Pressure created by the
presence of water in the cell...cell shrinks or
220.127.116.11.1.1 Hypertonic Solution: Con. of solutes outside cell is higher.
18.104.22.168.1.1.1 Animal cell: Shriveied.
22.214.171.124.1.1.2 Plant cell: Plasmolyze.
126.96.36.199.1.1.3 Water leaves cell.
188.8.131.52.1.2 Isotonic Solution: Conc. of solutes
outside is equal to inside cell.
184.108.40.206.1.2.1 Water leaves and enters cell at
the same rate. No net
220.127.116.11.1.2.2 Animal Cell: Normal
18.104.22.168.1.2.3 Plant .cell: Flaccid
22.214.171.124.1.3 Hypotonic Soultion:
Con. of solutes
outside cell is lower.
126.96.36.199.1.3.1 Water enters cell.
188.8.131.52.1.3.2 Animal Cell: Lysed.
184.108.40.206.1.3.3 Plant Cell: Turgid (normal).
220.127.116.11.2 Facilitated Diffusion:
Molecules still move down
the concentration gradient,
but cannot pass
phospholipids on there own.
18.104.22.168.2.1 Rely on proteins imbedded in
membrane to "help" them across.
Proteins are specific to the type
of molecules the uses them.
4.1.2 Active Transport: Does expend energy
22.214.171.124 Moves molecules against the concentration gradient
from areas of low concentration to area of high
126.96.36.199.1 Restores energy.
188.8.131.52.2 Takes energy to "go uphill"
184.108.40.206.3 Protein pumps move
molecules into or out of
cell against gradient.
220.127.116.11.1 Moving molecules
18.104.22.168.1.1 Both processes involve
moving large quantities of
materials with the use of
22.214.171.124.2 ENDOCYTOSIS. 1) Molecules move into a 'pocket' of the cell
membrane. 2) 'pocket' pinches off the membrane into
cytoplasm. 3) Vesicle has now formed and can move around
inside the cell.
126.96.36.199.2.1 These two processes occur at roughly the same rate =
NO overall change in cell's size.
188.8.131.52.1 Moving molecules out
184.108.40.206.2 Exocytosis. 1) Vesicle pinches off Golgi Apparatus. 2) Free vesicle
migrates towards cell membrane. 3) Vesicle contacts cell membrane
and begins to refuse with it. 4) As vesicle becomes part of plasma
membrane, contents spill out of cell.