1.1.1 Mental ability tests 1. Intelligence –
measures general mental ability like
one’s ability to solve problems,
understand language, abstract ideas 2.
Aptitude – specific mental abilities, also
assess potential in certain areas.
3. Achievement – assess one’s
knowledge of subjects like English and
1.2.1 Sir Francis Galton (1869)
– Studied upper class British
families and concluded that
intelligence was genetic
because it ran in families. He
did not consider the
environment of the
188.8.131.52 Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon (1905)
– Commissioned by the French
Government to devise a way to identify
children that needed remedial assistance
in school – Result was the Binet-Simon
Intelligence Scale – first intelligence test as
we know it
184.108.40.206.1 Lewis Terman (1916) –
U.S. – Revised Binet’s
original test and
– This test used the
(IQ) – IQ = MA/CA x
220.127.116.11.1.1 David Wechsler – Weschler worked
in a New York hospital and needed
to assess adults – Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – First
done in 1939 – Later made a
children’s version - Wechsler
Intelligence Scale for Children
2 KEY CONCEPTS
2.1 Standardization - refers to having uniform standards for
administering and scoring a test. Test norms – based on
large studies that show how one’s score compares to the
average score other’s received. Raw Score – score on a test.
Percentile score – indicates the percentage of people who
score at or below the test taker’s score. Standardization
group – group of people the norms are based on
3.1 Reliability – Whether or not
a psychological test gives
3.2 Validity – ability of a
test to measure what
it was designed to
recently the term
validity is used when
discussing what the
test is used for
4.1 Content validity – degree to which
the content of a test covers the
4.2 Criterion-related validity – if
it correlates well with
another measure of the test
4.3 Construct validity – degree to which the test
measures a particular trait.
5.1 4 LEVELS
5.1.1 1. Mild - (51-70 IQ) Can attain grade 6 education
and benefit from special education. 2. Moderate
(36-50 IQ) Attain grade 2-6 - Can be
semi-independent if in a sheltered environment
but need help even with mild stress. 3. Severe:
(20-35) Limited speech, need training on
toileting. 4. Profound: (below 20) Little or no
speech, not toilet trained.
5.2.1 Down Syndrome - physical characteristics, extra
18.104.22.168 PKU - Inability to metabolize phenlalanine.
22.214.171.124.1 Fragile X syndrome - Fragile area of the X Chromosome has area that is repeated.
126.96.36.199.1.1 Hydrocephaly - too much cerebrospinal fluid around brain destroys tissue and become ID.
188.8.131.52 To be considered gifted, on
must have an IQ 2 standard
deviations above the mean
(IQ score of 130 - 170)
6 HEREDITY &
6.1 Family - Level of intelligence runs in families.
6.1.1 Twins – Identical twins are compared to fraternal twins in order to
study the role of genetics considering that identical twins have 100% of the
184.108.40.206 Adoption - If adoptive children are more like their biological parents,
there is more genetic influence.
220.127.116.11.1 Environmental Deprivation - Children raised in orphanages and other deprived
situations have lower IQ scores than average.