Biological Molecules 1

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AQA AS A-Level
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Biological Molecules 1
1 Carbohydrates
1.1 Monosaccharides (Single sugar)
1.1.1 Glucose, Fructose, Lactose
1.1.2 elements : Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen
1.1.3 Glucose
1.1.3.1 a-glucose
1.1.3.2 b-g;ucose
1.1.3.3 Hexose Sugars & Structural Isomers (diff structure same formula ; C6H1206)
1.1.4 Brick Red in BT
1.1.5 Respiration (energy) & Growth of LM
1.2 Disaccharides (Double Sugars)
1.2.1 2 Monosaccharides Joined/Broken
1.2.1.1 Condensation Reaction - 2 molecules join with the formation of a chemical bond (glyicosdic bond) and elimination of water
1.2.1.2 Hydrolysis Reaction - Breaking chemical bond between 2 molecules with the addition of water
1.2.1.2.1 Boiling with acid or Heating with an enzyme at OT
1.2.2 Sucrose
1.2.2.1 Glucose & Fructose
1.2.3 Lalactose
1.2.3.1 Glucose & Galactose
1.2.4 Maltose
1.2.4.1 Glucose & Glucose
1.2.5 Positive in BT except Sucrose
1.2.6 Mono + Mono= Disac C6H12O6 + C6H1206 = C12H22011
1.3 Polysaccharide (many sugars)
1.3.1 Starch
1.3.1.1 a-glucose
1.3.1.2 Storage carbohydrate in plants found in starch grain (cytoplasm of cell)
1.3.1.3 Long branched chains & Helical shape
1.3.1.4 Osmotically Inactive (does not draw water in via osmosis preventing cell damage)
1.3.1.5 made up of 2 diff Carbohydrates
1.3.2 Glycogen
1.3.2.1 a-glucose
1.3.2.2 More branched chains (hydrolysed faster)
1.3.2.3 Storage Carbohydrate in animals found in liver and muscle tissues
1.3.2.4 osmoticlly inactive
1.3.3 Celloulose
1.3.3.1 b-glucose (inverted)
1.3.3.2 Long straight chains
1.3.3.2.1 hydroxyl groups on end of chains to form hydrogen bonds
1.3.3.2.1.1 hydrogen bonds between macro fibrils provide strength
1.3.3.2.1.1.1 Macro fibrils provide strength and rigidity
1.3.4 Unsweet & Insoluble
1.3.5 Non- Reducing Sugars (negative BT)
1.3.6 Formed by Condensation reaction
2 Lipids
2.1 Triglycerides
2.1.1 3 Fatty acids & 1 Gycerol
2.1.1.1 R Group - Long hydrocarbon chain
2.1.2 Formed by condensation reaction (3 easter bond formed and 3H20 removed
2.1.3 saturated - no double carbon bonds between Carbon atoms
2.1.4 Unsaturated- double bond
2.1.5 High portion of H to C bond- X2 much energy as carbohydrate in aerobic resperation
2.1.5.1 High ratio of H to O atoms- realsing water as a product of respiration
2.1.5.2 osmitcally inactive- ideal storage compounds
2.1.5.2.1 present in waxy cuticle of insects and plant leaves preventing water loss
2.2 Phospholipids
2.2.1 2 Fatty Acids 1 Glycerol 1 Phosphate G
2.2.2 condensation (Easter bond)
2.2.3 Polar Hydrophilic head & Non-polar Hydrophobic Tail
2.2.3.1 In Water - tails replant and project outwards and heads attracted to water
2.2.3.2 Cell Membrane- form a BILAYER. Tails attracted to each other away from water.
3 Water
3.1 Weak Hydrogen bonds between water Molecules providing cohesive forces(sticking together)
3.2 Metabolic Reactions
3.2.1 solvent
3.2.2 Metabolite
3.2.3 Photosynthesis
3.2.4 Product
3.3 Solvent
3.3.1 Transport of nutrients
3.3.2 Remove executory products
3.3.3 metabolic reactions occur
3.4 Temperature Regulation
3.4.1 High Heat Capacity (absorb before rise in temp)
3.4.2 Large Latent Heat of vaporisation (cooling effect)
3.5 Support
3.5.1 Strong Cohesion
3.5.1.1 support coloumbs of water
3.5.1.2 Surface tension for insects to walk on water
3.5.2 Not easily compressed - turgor pressure (full of water)
3.5.3 Buoyancy
4 Inorganic Ions
4.1 Sodium
4.1.1 Co-transport of Glucose & Amino Acids across CM
4.2 Iron
4.2.1 Component of haemoglobin which transports oxygen
4.3 Hydrogen
4.3.1 Determining pH which effects protein structure and enzyme shape
4.4 Phosphate
4.4.1 Structural component of DNA, RNA, ATP
5 Tests
5.1 Starch/Iodine Test
5.1.1 2-3 drops iodine, blue/black present, yellow not present
5.2 Emulsion/ Lipid Test
5.2.1 Ethanol , shake, water, mix, white cloudy emulsion of fat droplets
5.3 Bendicts Test
5.3.1 Reducing
5.3.1.1 Sample & BS same volume, heat in water bath, brick red/orange percipaite then positive, blue then not a RS
5.3.2 Non- Reducing
5.3.2.1 Confirm negative results, Hydrolyse with HCL, Cool, Neutralise with NaOH, add same volume of BS, Heat in water bath, Positive result if brick red precipitate
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