184.108.40.206 Argues acquisition of new behavior is based on environmental conditions. Behavior can be
learned through a process of stimuli, response and positive or negative reinforcement.
220.127.116.11.1 Classroom Application: Repetitive drilling of language, correcting errors as they happen and
rewarding students when performing correctly. Rewards could include a sticker, piece of candy,
or bonus points.
2 Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
2.1 Noam Chomsky
18.104.22.168 Argues that children are born with an understanding of the
rules of language, they simply need to acquire the vocabulary.
This is because every language has something that is like a noun
and verb and has ability to make things positive or negative.
Later evolved into Universal Grammar.
3 Universal Grammar
3.1 Noam Chomsky
3.1.1 1960s, 1970s
22.214.171.124 Argues babies are born with an innate system of grammar.
Linguistic ability manifests without being taught because all
languages have a common structural basis. When material is
meaningful, students are able to relate the new information to
elements in their cognitive structure. Evolved from Language
126.96.36.199.1 Classroom Application: Make the material and assignments meaningful. Give students a
general assignment with creative freedom to choose a topic in which they have interest.
Example: Have them demonstrate their Microsoft Publisher skills. They can create a
brochure on anything they like such as their favorite city, sports team or dream job.
4 Information Processing
4.1 George A. Miller
188.8.131.52 Compares human brain to that of a computer and requiring brain processing to learn which goes
beyond the simple stimulus-response pattern. Argues that input from the environment goes through
the cognitive system which is then measured as output. Maintains that language acquisition is a
hierarchy of skills where higher level components depend on attainment of lower level components.
184.108.40.206.1 Classroom Application: Continually expose students to target language to help move information from short term to
long term memory. Review material frequently to refresh information that may be slipping out of short term memory.
Have a bell ringer quiz, quick learning game or "check your knowledge" at the beginning of every class to determine what
students recall and to refresh memory by reviewing correct answers.
5 Audiolingual Method
5.1 C.C. Fries & Robert Lado
220.127.116.11 Uses dialog as the main form of language presentation and drills as the main
training techniques. Emphasizes listening and speaking before reading and
writing. Practice techniques include mimicry, memorization and pattern
18.104.22.168.1 Classroom Application: Repetition training and drills that are directed and controlled by
the teacher. Students repeat the teacher's model as accurately as possible. Errors are
immediately corrected to discourage bad habit formation.
6 Direct Method
6.1 Charles Berlitz
6.1.1 early 1900s
22.214.171.124 Uses explicit instructional objectives and promotes the learning of facts,
sequenced steps or rules. Aims to build direct relation between
experience and language, word and idea, thought and expression.
Vocabulary introduced in context, demonstrations and pictures.
Considered first real method of language teaching.
126.96.36.199.1 Classroom Application: Utilize reading programs, scripted lessons and lectures which are divided into small units that move in lockstep
pace. Frequently test over material and provide immediate remediation. Implement dictation where the teacher reads aloud a passage.
Employ"Question-Answer" where a teacher asks a question and the students answer.