Class Differences in Acheivement

*Ellie*
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

finished sociology (Education) Mind Map on Class Differences in Acheivement, created by *Ellie* on 04/12/2013.

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*Ellie*
Created by *Ellie* over 6 years ago
Educational policy and inequality
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Class Differences in Acheivement
1 Class differences-middle class children do better at GCSE's, stay longer + more go to uni
2 Eternal factors
2.1 Cultural Deprivation-WC children are culturally deprived=don't succeed in edu
2.1.1 Intellectual development-WC children don't develope thinking+reasoning skills due lack of books, edu toys/activities
2.1.1.1 Bernstein+Young found MC mothers- more likely to choose intellectually stimulating toys
2.1.2 Compensatory education-policies designed to tackle cultural deprivation (intervene early in socialisation to compensate)
2.1.2.1 Eg Operation Head Start in US to instill motivation +develope learning skills by improving parenting skills setting up nurseries+home visits or Edu Action Zones
2.1.3 Keddie argues WC children are culturally different +edu system is dominated by MC, Troyna+ Williams argue it's the schools attitude to language,
2.1.3.1 Blackstone+Mortimore WC parents attend fewer parents evenings because of work+they may want to help their child progress but lack the knowledge
2.1.4 Language
2.1.4.1 Bereiter+Engelmann-lower classes communicate by gestures+ single words/disjointed phrases=fail to develop language skills
2.1.4.2 Bernstein
2.1.4.2.1 The restricted code; WC limited vocab, short simple words, predictable speech, speaker assumes listener has had same experiences
2.1.4.2.2 The elaborated speech code; MC opposite, meanings spelled out (used in text books+exams+by teachers)
2.1.5 Parental attitudes+values;WC parents value edu less have less ambitions for children= children less motivated/supported
2.1.5.1 Lack of parental interest, reflects WC subculture
2.1.5.1.1 Hyman argues values + beliefs of the subculture are a self-imposed barrier-lower class believe they have less opportunity=value edu less
2.1.5.1.2 Sugarman; features of barrier-fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification+present time orientation, (internalised by children)
2.2 Material deprivation; poverty is closely linked to under acheivement
2.2.1 Housing; overcrowding-no room to study, lack of sleep, no room to explore/play for young children Temporary housing-psych damage+disrupts edu
2.2.2 Diet+health; poor nutrition= bad health+low energy
2.2.3 Financial support+the costs of edu;WC miss out +children have to have hand-me-downs=bullied WC children may also take on jobs, disrupting edu
2.2.4 Cultural/material factors; some poor children do well=religion may play a part+the school may play a part
2.3 Cultural capitol
2.3.1 Bourdieu; 3 types of capital (can all be converted into each other)
2.3.1.1 Cultural capital-knowledge, language, abilities, attitudes + values of the middle class=an advantage
2.3.1.2 Edu+economic capital MC parents more able to buy house in catchment area of good schools. MC parents can pay for good schools+extra tuition
2.3.1.3 Sullivan used questionnaires+tests of vocab +knowledge of cultural figures on 465 pupils
2.3.1.3.1 Those who read complex fiction+watched TV documentaries=complex language +greater cultural knowledge=cultural capital (children of graduates/MC)
2.3.2 Gewirtz studied marketisation+interviewed teachers+parents, found differences in economic+cultural capital=3 types of parents
2.3.2.1 Privileged-skilled choosers; MC well-off, confident+well edu=take advan of all choices
2.3.2.1.1 Time+skill for visits, know how admission system works, understand deadlines+waiting lists Economic capital for better edu
2.3.2.2 Disconnected-local choosers WC resticted by lack of economic+cultural capital Less aware+less confidence
2.3.2.3 Semi-skilled choosers mainly WC but ambitious for their children
3 Internal factors
3.1 Labelling
3.1.1 Secondary school; Becker; teachers judged pupils according to the 'ideal pupil' by their conduct+appearance (MC closest fit)
3.1.2 Primary school; teacher used childs background+appearance to place them as 'tiger'(MC seated near+encouraged)'clowns'/'cardinals'
3.1.3 High/low status knowledge; Keddie; A stream-taught theoretical high status knowledge/C stream-descriptive low status knowledge with same curriculum
3.2 The self-fulfilling prophecy
3.2.1 Teacher expectations; Rosenthal+Jacobson new test to id students who will spurt ahead, 20% chosen Yr later those students had improved significantly
3.2.1.1 Once streamed it is hard to move up, streams =self-fulfilling prophecy MC benefit from streaming
3.3 Pupil subcultures (develop through Lacey's differentiation +polarisation)
3.3.1 The pro-school subculture; (MC) Their values are those of the schools They gain status through edu success
3.3.2 The anti-school subculture; (WC)low stream=lose self-esteem Search for alternate ways of gaining status truanting, not doing homework=edu failure
3.3.3 Ball; comprehensive abolished streaming in favour of mixed ability=influence of anti-school subculture declined though labelling continued
3.3.4 Other pupil responses; ingratiation(teachers pet), ritualism (going through the motions), retreatism (messing about)+rebelling
3.3.5 Eval-Determinism-assumes labelled pupils have no choice but to fulfill prophecy Fails to explain why teachers label
3.4 Marketisation+selection policies
3.4.1 League tables create an A to C economy-schools concentrate on pupils with potential
3.4.1.1 This process is called edu triage-sorting pupils into those who will pass away, those with potential + hopeless cases
3.4.2 Schools-under pressure to select MC students to get good results=high in league table Other schools then have to take WC students=low in league tables
3.4.3 Some schools try to create a traditional image to attract MC students

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