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9.CONSTRUCTION BASICS

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Brigita Safyra
Mind Map by Brigita Safyra, updated more than 1 year ago
Brigita Safyra
Created by Brigita Safyra over 6 years ago
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9.CONSTRUCTION BASICS
  1. SPECIFICATIONS which are written documents explaining the requirements for the scope of the work,including materials,standards,and expected quality of the finished product.
    1. BLUEPRINT A detailed, working set of plans used as the guide for construction or a building or structure.
      1. PERMITS issued after approval of the builder initial plans,are official government documents,obtained from the appropriate government authority that acknowledge that the proposed work meets the department standards,and grant permission for it to be performed.
        1. BUILDING CODES protect the public by setting minimum standards and requiring builders to use certain construction standards,including particular methods and materials,sanitary equipment,electrical wiring,and fire prevention techniques.
          1. ADA - Disabilities act.
            1. BUILDING INSPECTION is the process whereby government authorities usually state or local are charged with ensuring compliance with prevailing building codes.
              1. CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY is issued to builders after all inspections have been made and the property is deemed fit for occupancy.
                1. DRAINAGE is the natural or artificial movement of water from a given area.
                  1. SHADING the amount of shade property receives depends on how a structure on it.
                    1. STRUCTURE
                      1. FOUNDATIONis the basic structure on which the rest of the house sits.A typical foundation system is usually concrete slab,pier and beams,crawl space,or basement,
                        1. FOUNDATION WALLS are the side wall that support the structure.They are typically made of poured concrete,concrete block or brick.
                          1. FOOTER is the underground base usually concrete that supports a foundation.
                            1. SLAB-ON-GRADE CONSTRUCTION is a concrete foundation build directly on the ground. It doesnt have a basement. CONCRETE SLAB is a foundation made from a layer of poured concrete reinforced with steel rods.
                              1. CRAWL SPACE is the unfinished space bellow the first floor of a house or other structure but less than a full story in height.In other cases ,a crawl space is the result of PIER AND BEAM FOUNDATION with the pier extending out of the ground less than full story in height and supporting the weight of the structure.
                                1. BASEMENT is part of the house or building partially or entirely below grade and is used to support the rest of the structure.
                      2. FRAMING
                        1. is the basic ,load bearing skeleton of structure to which the interior walls,exterior walls,and roof system are attached.
                          1. TYPES OF FRAMING
                            1. PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION also called platform framing is a type of framing by which the house or building is constructed one story at the time,with each story serving as a platform for the next.STUDS,VERTICAL WOODFRAMING
                              1. POST AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION (post and beam framing) is a type of framing with the floor for higher stories (and the roof)supported by beams that sit on top of posts and the outside wall perimeter.
                                1. BALLOON CONSTRUCTION is a type of framing with long studs going up to entire length of the house,from the foundation to the roof.HORIZONTAL STUDS
                                  1. BEAM -long piece of wood,metal,or concrete.
                                    1. STUD - is a vertical beam that serves to frame a structure. Studs must be at least 2 inches wide.
                                      1. GIRDER - a large,main carrying beam that usually runs horizontally,supports the vertical loads.
                                        1. JOISTS are long horizontal beams of wood or steel that span the piers of a foundation(floor joists) or load-bearing walls of roof (ceiling joists).
                                          1. SILL PLATE -is the bottom piece of a frame that is anchored horizontally to the foundation,and provides a nailing surface for the floor or wall system.IT IS THE FIRST LAYER OF WOOD THAT STARTS THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HOUSE.
                        2. BEARING WALLS which are wall that carry the load for the roof,ceiling and/or floors.Reinforcements made of wood for door and window placement are called HEADERS or lintels.
                          1. STRCTURAL TIE-INS
                          2. ROOF FRAMING
                            1. RAFTER is a sloped support beam that follows the pitch of the roof and serves to hold the outer roof covering
                              1. PITCH is a roofs vertical rise in inches divided by its horizontal span in feet.
                            2. FLASHING is added to cover joints where two or more types of materials join together for the purpose of preventing water from penetrating the joint.
                              1. SHEATHING is a structural covering often made of plywood placed over a building frames exterior wall studs or roof rafters.
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