SPECIFICATIONS which are written documents explaining the
requirements for the scope of the work,including
materials,standards,and expected quality of the finished product.
BLUEPRINT A detailed, working set of plans used as the guide for
construction or a building or structure.
PERMITS issued after approval of the builder initial plans,are official
government documents,obtained from the appropriate government
authority that acknowledge that the proposed work meets the
department standards,and grant permission for it to be performed.
BUILDING CODES protect the public by setting minimum standards and
requiring builders to use certain construction standards,including
particular methods and materials,sanitary equipment,electrical
wiring,and fire prevention techniques.
ADA - Disabilities act.
BUILDING INSPECTION is the process whereby government authorities
usually state or local are charged with ensuring compliance with
prevailing building codes.
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY is issued to builders after all inspections have
been made and the property is deemed fit for occupancy.
DRAINAGE is the natural or artificial movement of water from a given area.
SHADING the amount of shade property receives depends on how a
structure on it.
FOUNDATIONis the basic structure on
which the rest of the house sits.A typical
foundation system is usually concrete
slab,pier and beams,crawl space,or
FOUNDATION WALLS are the side wall that
support the structure.They are typically
made of poured concrete,concrete block or
FOOTER is the underground base usually
concrete that supports a foundation.
SLAB-ON-GRADE CONSTRUCTION is a
concrete foundation build directly on the
ground. It doesnt have a basement.
CONCRETE SLAB is a foundation made
from a layer of poured concrete reinforced
with steel rods.
CRAWL SPACE is the unfinished space
bellow the first floor of a house or other
structure but less than a full story in
height.In other cases ,a crawl space is the
result of PIER AND BEAM FOUNDATION
with the pier extending out of the ground
less than full story in height and
supporting the weight of the structure.
BASEMENT is part of the house or building
partially or entirely below grade and is used
to support the rest of the structure.
is the basic ,load bearing skeleton of
structure to which the interior
walls,exterior walls,and roof system are
TYPES OF FRAMING
PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION also called
platform framing is a type of framing by
which the house or building is constructed
one story at the time,with each story
serving as a platform for the
POST AND BEAM CONSTRUCTION (post and
beam framing) is a type of framing with the
floor for higher stories (and the
roof)supported by beams that sit on top of
posts and the outside wall perimeter.
BALLOON CONSTRUCTION is a type of framing
with long studs going up to entire length of the
house,from the foundation to the
BEAM -long piece of wood,metal,or concrete.
STUD - is a vertical beam that serves to frame a
structure. Studs must be at least 2 inches wide.
GIRDER - a large,main carrying beam that usually
runs horizontally,supports the vertical loads.
JOISTS are long horizontal beams of wood or steel
that span the piers of a foundation(floor joists) or
load-bearing walls of roof (ceiling joists).
SILL PLATE -is the bottom piece of a frame that is anchored
horizontally to the foundation,and provides a nailing surface
for the floor or wall system.IT IS THE FIRST LAYER OF WOOD
THAT STARTS THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE HOUSE.
BEARING WALLS which are wall that carry
the load for the roof,ceiling and/or
floors.Reinforcements made of wood for
door and window placement are called
HEADERS or lintels.
RAFTER is a sloped
support beam that
follows the pitch of
the roof and serves
to hold the outer
PITCH is a roofs
vertical rise in inches
divided by its
horizontal span in feet.
FLASHING is added to cover joints where two or
more types of materials join together for the
purpose of preventing water from penetrating
SHEATHING is a structural
covering often made of
plywood placed over a
building frames exterior wall
studs or roof rafters.