C1 - Air Quality

Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Chemistry Mind Map on C1 - Air Quality, created by nicole_j_baldwin on 12/22/2013.

Created by nicole_j_baldwin almost 6 years ago
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C1 - Air Quality
1 Atmospheric Evolution
1.1 Phase 1
1.1.1 Volcanoes gave out gases
1.1.2 Earth's surface was originally molten for many millions of years. Atmosphere 'boiled into space'. Earth cooled slightly, crust formed, volcanoes erupted. Volcanoes emit gas Atmosphere formed Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour and Nitrogen Little Oxygen Water Vapour condensed Hydrosphere formation
1.2 Phase 2
1.2.1 Evolution of green plants
1.2.2 Green plants evolved over most of Earth. CO2 was removed from atmosphere by dissolving in the oceans and through photosynthesis. The levels of Oxygen began to increase. When plants died they were burried under layers of sediment. the Carbon that they had removed from the air (in CO2) become 'locked' in sedimentary rocks. Insoluble carbonates Fossil fuels
1.3 Phase 3
1.3.1 Evolution of complex organisms
1.3.2 The build up of Oxygen in the atmosphere killed off organisms that could not tolerate it but allowed other organisms to evolve (like humans). There is virtually no CO2 left now.
1.4 The atmosphere today
1.4.1 Compsition Nitrogen 78% Oxygen 21% Argon 1% Carbon Dioxide <0.1% Water Vapour 0-4%
1.4.2 Changing Human activity is changing our atmosphere Constant Nitrogem, Oxygen and Argon Increasing Pollutants Sources Burning fossil fules Nature
2 Molecules
2.1 Diagrams of air molecules
2.1.1 Atoms
2.2 Reactions
2.2.1 Rearranging of atoms
2.2.2 No atoms are lost Sides must balance
2.2.3 Reactants and products have very different properties
2.3 Fossil fuels
2.3.1 Hydrocarbons Formed from the remains of dead plants and animals over millions of years
2.3.2 Drilled from the Earth's crust and then refined to make products like petrol and diesel Fuels are a mixture of hydrocarbons Difference in fuels is the length of hydrocarbon
2.3.3 Burning Combustion and oxidation Produced carbon dioxide and water Complete When a fuel is burned in plenty of Oxygen the fuel burns more rapidly and therefore a higher temperature can be reached Useful for welding Incomplete Occurs when not enough oxygen is supplied for complete combustion to occur Creates polution
3 Air Pollution
3.1 Carbon
3.1.1 Combustion Complete Carbon Dioxide Incomplete Particulates Carbon Monoxide
3.1.2 Polutants Carbon Dioxide Stays in atmosphere causing problems until removed Natural Photosynthesis Dissolving Greenhouse gas Warms Earth through 'Greenhouse Effect' Carbon Monoxide Poisonous Drowsy Headaches Suffocation - Death Particulate Carbon Tiny particles Float around Deposit themselves - soot Dirty looking
3.2 Sulphur
3.2.1 Comes from impurities in fuels Impurities are present due to extraction of the fuels
3.2.2 Sulphur Dioxide Can only leave atmosphere in the from of acid rain Acid rain When SO2 reacts with H2O it becomes H2SO4 Dilute Sulphuric Acid Problems Acidifies lakes Kills plants and animals Rain Damages buildings and statues made from weak stone Limestone Kills trees
3.3 Nitrogen
3.3.1 Involves Nitrogen from the air When fuels are burnt at extreme temperatures atoms in the air react Nitrogen oxidises to create Nitrogen Oxides NO NO2
3.3.2 Polutants NO Formed in car engines; N and O react NO2 Formed when NO reacts in air with more O Problems Similar to sulphur dioxide NOx react with moisture in the air to form dilute nitric acid Acid Rain
4 Reducing Pollution
4.1 Power Stations
4.1.1 Use less electricity Decreases fossil fuel consumption
4.1.2 Remove sulphur impurities from fossil fuels before industrial combustion
4.1.3 SO2 and particulattes can be removed from industrail chimneys SO2 can be removed by reacting it with an alkali aka. 'wet scrubbing' Sea Water: SO2 reacted with sea water produces CO2, H2O and dissolved SO4 Alkine Slurry - CaO(aq): Slurry is sprayed onto gasses and SO2 reacts with the CaO. CaS (s) formed.
4.2 From Cars
4.2.1 More efficient engines Burn less fuel - create less polution
4.2.2 Catalytic converters Convert NO into harmless N and O Convert CO into CO2 by adding O2
4.2.3 Legal limit on amount of pollution from cars
4.3 New technology
4.3.1 New cars Biofuels replacing petrol Renewable energy source Plants and waste Only produce CO2 and H2O Carbon neutral One problem Deforrestaion to create room for bio-fuel farms Electric Baterries No exhaust gases However... Electricity is still needed and therefore fossil fuels are still burnt