C1 - Air Quality

nicole_j_baldwin
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Chemistry Mind Map on C1 - Air Quality, created by nicole_j_baldwin on 12/22/2013.

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nicole_j_baldwin
Created by nicole_j_baldwin almost 6 years ago
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C1 - Air Quality
1 Atmospheric Evolution
1.1 Phase 1
1.1.1 Volcanoes gave out gases
1.1.2 Earth's surface was originally molten for many millions of years. Atmosphere 'boiled into space'. Earth cooled slightly, crust formed, volcanoes erupted.
1.1.2.1 Volcanoes emit gas
1.1.2.1.1 Atmosphere formed
1.1.2.1.1.1 Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapour and Nitrogen
1.1.2.1.1.1.1 Little Oxygen
1.1.2.1.1.1.2 Water Vapour condensed
1.1.2.1.1.1.2.1 Hydrosphere formation
1.2 Phase 2
1.2.1 Evolution of green plants
1.2.2 Green plants evolved over most of Earth. CO2 was removed from atmosphere by dissolving in the oceans and through photosynthesis. The levels of Oxygen began to increase.
1.2.2.1 When plants died they were burried under layers of sediment. the Carbon that they had removed from the air (in CO2) become 'locked' in sedimentary rocks.
1.2.2.1.1 Insoluble carbonates
1.2.2.1.2 Fossil fuels
1.3 Phase 3
1.3.1 Evolution of complex organisms
1.3.2 The build up of Oxygen in the atmosphere killed off organisms that could not tolerate it but allowed other organisms to evolve (like humans).
1.3.2.1 There is virtually no CO2 left now.
1.4 The atmosphere today
1.4.1 Compsition
1.4.1.1 Nitrogen
1.4.1.1.1 78%
1.4.1.2 Oxygen
1.4.1.2.1 21%
1.4.1.3 Argon
1.4.1.3.1 1%
1.4.1.4 Carbon Dioxide
1.4.1.4.1 <0.1%
1.4.1.5 Water Vapour
1.4.1.5.1 0-4%
1.4.2 Changing
1.4.2.1 Human activity is changing our atmosphere
1.4.2.1.1 Constant
1.4.2.1.1.1 Nitrogem, Oxygen and Argon
1.4.2.1.2 Increasing
1.4.2.1.2.1 Pollutants
1.4.2.1.2.1.1 Sources
1.4.2.1.2.1.1.1 Burning fossil fules
1.4.2.1.2.1.1.2 Nature
2 Molecules
2.1 Diagrams of air molecules
2.1.1 Atoms
2.1.2
2.2 Reactions
2.2.1 Rearranging of atoms
2.2.1.1
2.2.2 No atoms are lost
2.2.2.1 Sides must balance
2.2.3 Reactants and products have very different properties
2.3 Fossil fuels
2.3.1 Hydrocarbons
2.3.1.1 Formed from the remains of dead plants and animals over millions of years
2.3.2 Drilled from the Earth's crust and then refined to make products like petrol and diesel
2.3.2.1 Fuels are a mixture of hydrocarbons
2.3.2.2 Difference in fuels is the length of hydrocarbon
2.3.3 Burning
2.3.3.1 Combustion and oxidation
2.3.3.1.1 Produced carbon dioxide and water
2.3.3.1.2 Complete
2.3.3.1.2.1 When a fuel is burned in plenty of Oxygen the fuel burns more rapidly and therefore a higher temperature can be reached
2.3.3.1.2.1.1 Useful for welding
2.3.3.1.3 Incomplete
2.3.3.1.3.1 Occurs when not enough oxygen is supplied for complete combustion to occur
2.3.3.1.3.1.1 Creates polution
3 Air Pollution
3.1 Carbon
3.1.1 Combustion
3.1.1.1 Complete
3.1.1.1.1 Carbon Dioxide
3.1.1.2 Incomplete
3.1.1.2.1 Particulates
3.1.1.2.2 Carbon Monoxide
3.1.2 Polutants
3.1.2.1 Carbon Dioxide
3.1.2.1.1 Stays in atmosphere causing problems until removed
3.1.2.1.1.1 Natural
3.1.2.1.1.1.1 Photosynthesis
3.1.2.1.1.1.2 Dissolving
3.1.2.1.2 Greenhouse gas
3.1.2.1.2.1 Warms Earth through 'Greenhouse Effect'
3.1.2.2 Carbon Monoxide
3.1.2.2.1 Poisonous
3.1.2.2.1.1 Drowsy
3.1.2.2.1.2 Headaches
3.1.2.2.1.3 Suffocation - Death
3.1.2.3 Particulate Carbon
3.1.2.3.1 Tiny particles
3.1.2.3.1.1 Float around
3.1.2.3.2 Deposit themselves - soot
3.1.2.3.2.1 Dirty looking
3.2 Sulphur
3.2.1 Comes from impurities in fuels
3.2.1.1 Impurities are present due to extraction of the fuels
3.2.2 Sulphur Dioxide
3.2.2.1 Can only leave atmosphere in the from of acid rain
3.2.2.2 Acid rain
3.2.2.2.1 When SO2 reacts with H2O it becomes H2SO4
3.2.2.2.1.1 Dilute Sulphuric Acid
3.2.2.2.2 Problems
3.2.2.2.2.1 Acidifies lakes
3.2.2.2.2.1.1 Kills plants and animals
3.2.2.2.2.2 Rain
3.2.2.2.2.2.1 Damages buildings and statues made from weak stone
3.2.2.2.2.2.1.1 Limestone
3.2.2.2.2.2.2 Kills trees
3.3 Nitrogen
3.3.1 Involves Nitrogen from the air
3.3.1.1 When fuels are burnt at extreme temperatures atoms in the air react
3.3.1.1.1 Nitrogen oxidises to create Nitrogen Oxides
3.3.1.1.1.1 NO
3.3.1.1.1.2 NO2
3.3.2 Polutants
3.3.2.1 NO
3.3.2.1.1 Formed in car engines; N and O react
3.3.2.2 NO2
3.3.2.2.1 Formed when NO reacts in air with more O
3.3.2.3 Problems
3.3.2.3.1 Similar to sulphur dioxide
3.3.2.3.1.1 NOx react with moisture in the air to form dilute nitric acid
3.3.2.3.1.1.1 Acid Rain
4 Reducing Pollution
4.1 Power Stations
4.1.1 Use less electricity
4.1.1.1 Decreases fossil fuel consumption
4.1.2 Remove sulphur impurities from fossil fuels before industrial combustion
4.1.3 SO2 and particulattes can be removed from industrail chimneys
4.1.3.1 SO2 can be removed by reacting it with an alkali
4.1.3.1.1 aka. 'wet scrubbing'
4.1.3.1.1.1 Sea Water: SO2 reacted with sea water produces CO2, H2O and dissolved SO4
4.1.3.1.1.2 Alkine Slurry - CaO(aq): Slurry is sprayed onto gasses and SO2 reacts with the CaO. CaS (s) formed.
4.2 From Cars
4.2.1 More efficient engines
4.2.1.1 Burn less fuel - create less polution
4.2.2 Catalytic converters
4.2.2.1 Convert NO into harmless N and O
4.2.2.2 Convert CO into CO2 by adding O2
4.2.3 Legal limit on amount of pollution from cars
4.3 New technology
4.3.1 New cars
4.3.1.1 Biofuels replacing petrol
4.3.1.1.1 Renewable energy source
4.3.1.1.1.1 Plants and waste
4.3.1.1.1.2 Only produce CO2 and H2O
4.3.1.1.1.3 Carbon neutral
4.3.1.1.2 One problem
4.3.1.1.2.1 Deforrestaion to create room for bio-fuel farms
4.3.1.2 Electric Baterries
4.3.1.2.1 No exhaust gases
4.3.1.2.2 However...
4.3.1.2.2.1 Electricity is still needed and therefore fossil fuels are still burnt