All you need to know about Pompeii

The Blues
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Mind Map on All you need to know about Pompeii, created by The Blues on 12/24/2013.

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The Blues
Created by The Blues almost 6 years ago
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All you need to know about Pompeii
1 Location and History
1.1 Fertile Area
1.2 Natural floodplains and harbours
1.3 Produced 3 or 4 crops per year
1.4 Olive, grape, spelt, wheat and millet were grown
1.5 Wine and rose perfume
1.6 Good road network
1.7 Sarno river and sea were close
1.8 Vesuvius associated with prosperity and festivity (Bacchus)
1.9 Looted since eruption
1.10 Walls 6th century BCE
1.11 Rome colony and Sulla's veterans settle 80BCE
1.12 First influenced by Oscans, Etruscans and Greeks
1.13 Founded 8th century BCE
1.14 City 6th century BCE
1.15 Samnite control 5th century BCE
1.16 Roman 'ally' 290BCE
1.17 Loyal in Punic Wars 3rd century BCE
1.18 Rebels in Social Wars 91BCE
1.19 Besieged by Sulla 89BCE
1.20 Prospering 1st century CE
1.21 Amphitheatre riot 59CE
1.22 Large earthquake 62/63CE
1.23 Earthquakes then eruption 79CE
2 The Eruption
2.1 Recorded by Pliny the Younger
2.2 Pliny the elder died during the eruption
2.3 The Plinian Stage
2.3.1 Day 1
2.3.1.1 Started (around midday) with a column of hot gas and pumice 30km high emerged from Vesuvius accompanied by a loud bang
2.3.1.1.1 Described by Pliny as like an 'umbrella pine'
2.3.1.1.1.1 Pompeii was downwind and was plunged into darkness
2.3.1.1.1.1.1 Ash and rock fragments began accumulating at a rate of 15cm p/h
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 Many people chose to escape whilst some sheltered in their houses
2.3.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 By evening, roofs were starting to collapse under the strain of the debris
2.4 The Pelean Stage
2.4.1 Day 2
2.4.1.1 During the early morning there was a lull in the eruption
2.4.1.1.1 Some Pompeians made their escape believing that the worse was over
2.4.1.1.1.1 This was actually a sign that the volcano was running out of energy
2.4.1.1.1.1.1 As the column could no longer be supported it started to collapse
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1 This began the stage of pyroclastic flows and ground surges
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 These are flows of hot volcanic material travelling between 100 and 400 kilometres per hour at a temperature ranging from 100 to 300 degrees celcius
2.4.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 The first and second pyroclastic flows buried Herculaneum whilst Pompeii's walls were hit by the third and it was buried by the other three
2.5 Pliny the Elder's story
2.5.1 Pliny was interested in nature and was in the process of writing an encylopedia
2.5.1.1 He was also in charge of the Bay of Naples navy
2.5.1.1.1 When the eruption began he led a rescue party by sea
2.5.1.1.1.1 On being blocked by floating pumice he ordered the fleet towards the house of his friend situated in Stabiae
2.5.1.1.1.1.1 There he bathed and slept
2.5.1.1.1.1.1.1 During the night he was woken as the house was struggling under the weight of the debris
2.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 They decided to flee with pillows tied to their heads for protection
2.5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 He was killed by the poisonous gas cloud pushed by a pyroclastic flow
2.6 The Aftermath
2.6.1 Titus was the (relatively new) emperor at the time
2.6.2 He journeyed to the Bay of Naples and organised relief efforts
2.6.3 Survivors moved into nearby cities which were given special rights to help them settle
2.6.4 Anyone who died without making a will had their wealth donated to the relief fund
2.6.5 Pompeii was looted yet was then soon forgotten
2.6.6 Around 1,150 bodies have so far been found (1/3 of the city has been excavated)
2.6.7 This suggests that a majority of the 10,000 inhabitants escaped
2.6.8 345 of the 394 bodies discovered in the pumice layer were indoors
2.6.9 48 bodies have been found near the Sarno river
2.6.10 319 of the 653 people discovered in the pyroclastic flows layer were buried outdoors
2.7 The initial blast had the power of 500 of the nuclear bombs dropped on Hiroshima
3 Rediscovery
3.1 Alcubierre
3.1.1 First person in charge of Pompeii's excavation
3.1.2 Military engineer
3.1.3 No clue about archaeology
3.1.4 Worked for King Charles VIII
3.1.5 Careless and clumsy in excavations
3.2 Karl Webber
3.2.1 Alcubierre's deputy
3.2.2 Swiss architect
3.2.3 Didn't get on with his boss
3.2.4 Brought innovations to process
3.2.5 Kept records
3.3 Giuseppe Fiorelli
3.3.1 Most famous archaeologist of Pompeii
3.3.2 Worked when Italy was reunified in 1860
3.3.3 Insisted no walls were destroyed
3.3.4 Protected buildings
3.3.5 Introduced system of mapping
3.3.6 Stopped items being removed unless neccessary
3.3.7 Opened part of site to public
3.3.8 Invented the plaster cast process
3.3.8.1 This is the technique where any holes found are filled in with plaster (today we use a resin) to re-create the body's dying moment
4 Layout
4.1 Learn gates
4.2 Learn key streets
4.3 Learn key features

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