Carbohydrates

Thomas Marshall
Mind Map by Thomas Marshall, updated more than 1 year ago
Thomas Marshall
Created by Thomas Marshall about 4 years ago
11
2

Description

Showing how they are made up and their uses

Resource summary

Carbohydrates
1 Glucose
1.1 The carbon atoms are numbered going in a clockwise direction starting from this one.
1.1.1 This is showing alpha glucose to make beta just swap the o and oh on this carbon around
1.2 Where is it found?
1.2.1 It is found in the small intestine after digestion and inside cells before respiration.
1.3 Uses
1.3.1 It is the only fuel used by our nervous system and is used to produce ATP
2 Maltose is made by removing an H and OH from carbon atoms 4 and 1 respectively. This happens when two glucose molecules are joined together. It forms an alpha 1-4 glycosidic bond
3 Tests for sugars
3.1 Reducing sugars you boil with benedicts solution. This is called the benedicts test. If it goes from blue to brick red then there is a reducing sugar in it.
3.2 Test for nonreducing sugars is to boil with HCL and then neutralise with sodium hydrogen carbonate followed by a benedicts test shown to the right of here.
4 Lactose is made of galactose and glucose. Sucrose is made from glucose and fructose.
5 Starch is made from amylopectin and amylose. Amylopectin is made from alpha 1-4 and alpha 1-6 glycosidic bonds. This causes it to he branched. Amylose is made up of alpha 1-4 glycosidic bonds so it is not branched. Glycogen is the same as amylopectin but has more 1-6 bonds so are more branched.
6 Cellulose is made up of of many beta glucose molecules bonded together using beta 1-4 glycosidic bonds.
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