Gender differences in edu

*Ellie*
Mind Map by *Ellie*, updated more than 1 year ago
*Ellie*
Created by *Ellie* almost 7 years ago
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finished sociology (Education) Mind Map on Gender differences in edu, created by *Ellie* on 04/13/2013.
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Gender differences in edu
1 The gender gap-From starting school girls do consistantly better
2 External factors
2.1 Feminists have raised womens expectations+self-esteem
2.1.1 McRobbie compared girls magazines-1970 -emphasised getting married whereas now they contain independant assertive women
2.2 Changes in family (more divorce+ lone parent families)Eg more women need to take breadwinner role
2.3 Changes in womens employment-girls encouraged toward paid work Better opportunities and pay offer incentive
2.4 Evidence for girls' changing ambitions (Sharpe)
2.4.1 1970-girls had low aspirations Acting intelligent=unattractive Prioritites -marriage husband children
2.4.2 1990-priorities-careers+ supporting themselves More likely to see themselves as independant
3 Internal factors
3.1 Equal opportunities policies-teachers aware to avoid stereotyping GIST WISE encourage non-traditional careers National curriculum-study same subjects
3.2 Positive role models in school (female (head)teachers)
3.3 GCSE+coursework-favor girls-Spend more time Care about presentation Better with deadlines Bring right equipment Due to early gender role socialisation
3.4 (French)teacher attention-more with boys (Swann+Graddol) boys; dominant +disruptive=more opportunity to speak Teachers respond +vely to girls
3.5 Removal of gender stereotype from learning material-removed a barrier
3.6 Marketisation=girls more desirable=self-fulfilling prophecy (Boys more likely to suffer from behavioural difficulties)
3.7 2 views of girls acheivement
3.7.1 Liberal feminists-celebrate progress Further progress due to equal opportunities, +ive role models + overcoming sexist attitudes
3.7.2 Radical feminists-system remains patriarchal (Sexual harassment Edu limits subject choice Male head teachers more likely in secondary school)
3.8 Boys + acheivement
3.8.1 Boys have poorer literacy+language skills due to parents reading less to them+boys leisure persuits
3.8.2 Less heavy industries(mining, etc)=decline of 'mens jobs' =identity crisis for men-undermines motivation+self-esteem
3.8.3 Feminisation of edu-schools don't nurture masculine traits Eg coursework
3.8.4 Less male primary school teachers-less role models
3.8.5 WC-masculinity=manual work Non-manual work =effeminate+inferior Francis-laddish culture spreading as girls move into traditionally masculine areas
3.9 Boys are not a lost cause Class gap greater than gender gap=b+g of same class=similar results Influence of gender varies Interaction effect,
4 Subject choice + gender identity
4.1 'gender routes' G+B always choose different subjects Eg Boys-math+physics Girls-soc
4.1.1 Explanations of gender differences in subject choice
4.1.1.1 Early socialisation-G+B learn the behaviour expected of them G+B are dressed differently, given different toys+encouraged in different activities
4.1.1.1.1 Parents reward B when active+G when passive Teachers expect B to be tough+show initiative while G-expected to be helpful+tidy
4.1.1.1.1.1 =develop differently in reading tastes-G-fiction/B-non-fiction=different subjects
4.1.1.2 Gender domains-tasks/activities that are seen as female/male-children more confident in there domain G+B also interpret tasks differently
4.1.1.2.1 B+G pay attention to different detail G-focus more on how people feel B-focus more on how things are made (G-humanities+art B-science)
4.1.1.3 Science seen as boys subject because science teachers more likely to be male+examples used involve boys interest+boys dominate in practicals
4.1.1.3.1 DfES-pupils who attend a single sex school tend to hold less stereotyped subject images=less traditional subject choices
4.1.1.4 Peer pressure Eg boys tend to opt out of music/dance because they are out of their gender domain=attract -ive response of peers+vice versa
4.1.1.5 'Sex typed' jobs Womens often similar to housewife
4.2 Gender identity
4.2.1 Verbal abuse-1 way that dominant gender+sexual identities are reinforced Eg girls called slags
4.2.2 Macho lads are dismissive of MC boys who work hard
4.2.3 Male teachers tease boys when they get lower marks than girls+they ignore boys verbal abuse of girls+they may also be protective of female teachers
4.2.4 The male gaze-femininity devalued, dominance reinforced+ way to prove masculinity
4.2.5 Double standards-boys boast about their sexual exploits but a girl...
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