Blood pressure

Shaima Amanda
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

Reference: Robbin's Basic Pathology Chapter 9

Shaima Amanda
Created by Shaima Amanda almost 6 years ago
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Blood pressure
1 Major regulator: Renin
1.1 Juxtaglomerular cells
1.2 Cleaves Angiotensinogen to AT-1
1.2.1 AT-1 to AT-2 Stimulates adrenal gland to secrete aldosterone Increases blood volume -ve feedback by Myocardial natriuretic peptide Increases sodium resorption Vasoconstriction
2 Benign Hypertension
2.1 Malignant Hypertension
2.1.1 Hyperplastic arteriosclerosis
2.1.2 Decreased sodium excretion Increased blood volume and blood pressure
2.1.3 Genetic factors/ Environmental factors
2.1.4 Atherosclerosis Atheroma Cholesterol, cholesterol esters, necrotic debris and fibrotic caps Thrombosis Risk Factors Modifiable Hyperlipidemia/ hypercholesterolemia Good cholesterol HDL. HDL mobilzes the cholesterols from plaques to the liver Exercise and ethanol increases HDL Smoking and obesity decreases HDL Bad cholesterol LDL. LDL distributes the cholesterol in the peripheral tissues Statins lower the circulating cholesterol Statins lower CRP levels CRP is synthesised by liver. It is a biomarker which predicts the risk of MI. Hypertension Ischemic heart disease Left ventricular hypertrophy Smoking Diabetes mellitus Atherosclerosis related GANGRENE Myocardial infarction Constitutional/ nonmodifiable Genetics Familial hypercholesterolemia Age 40-60 yrs Gender Males are more prone. Postmenopausal women are also at more risk compared to premenopausal Coronary Artery Disease Lipoprotein-a : Apolipoprotein B100 and Apolipoprotein-a Atherogenesis Endothelial injury Endothelial dysfunction Monocyte-macrophages Platelet adhesion Smooth muscle recruitment Lipid accumulation Fatty streaks Atherosclerotic plaques Smooth muscle cells, T-cells and macrophages Intracellular and extracellular lipid accumulation ECM, collagen, elastin, proteoglycans LEADS TO THROMBOSIS EMBOLISM Plaque rupture Plaque erosion Plaque hemorrhage
2.2 Hyaline arteriosclerosis
2.2.1 Nephrosclerosis

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