Population

Abby Whitmore
Mind Map by Abby Whitmore, updated more than 1 year ago
Abby Whitmore
Created by Abby Whitmore about 4 years ago
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Description

GCSE Geography Mind Map on Population, created by Abby Whitmore on 02/18/2016.

Resource summary

Population
1 Population Growth
1.1 The world's population is growing rapidly
1.1.1 The rate at which population is growing is increasing
1.1.2 Two factors that affect the world's population size:
1.1.2.1 Birth Rate- no. of babies born per 1000 of the population per year
1.1.2.2 Death Rate- no. of deaths per 1000 of the population per year
1.1.3 Natural Increase: Higher birth rate than death rate
1.1.4 Natural Decrease: Birth rate lower than death rate
1.1.5 Migration can also impact a country's population
1.2 Countries go through 5 Stages of Population Growth
1.2.1 The more developed the country, the later the stage of population growth it is at.
1.2.2 Stage 1
1.2.2.1 High and fluctuating Birth Rate and Death Rate
1.2.2.2 Low and steady population size
1.2.2.3 Population Growth Rate: Zero
1.2.3 Stage 2
1.2.3.1 High and Steady Birth Rate
1.2.3.2 Low and falling Death rate
1.2.3.3 Very high population growth rate
1.2.3.4 Rapidly increasing population size
1.2.4 Stage 3
1.2.4.1 Rapidly falling birth Rate
1.2.4.2 Slowly falling death rate
1.2.4.3 High Population Growth Rate
1.2.4.4 Increasing Population Size
1.2.5 Stage 4
1.2.5.1 Population Growth Rate: Zero
1.2.5.2 Low and fluctuating birth and death rate
1.2.5.3 High and steady population size
1.2.6 Stage 5
1.2.6.1 Slowly falling Birth Rate
1.2.6.2 Slowly falling population size
1.2.6.3 Low and fluctuating death rate
1.2.6.4 Negative Population Growth Rate
1.2.7 See DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION MODEL
2 Population Structure
2.1 The population structure of a country is how many people there are of each age group in the population, and how many there are of each sex.
2.2 Shown using population pyramids.
2.3 The different stages of DMT give countries different population structures.
2.4 Stage 1
2.4.1 No contraception- high birth rate
2.4.2 High death rate because of poor healthcare
2.4.3 Low life expectancy- high proportion of young people
2.5 Stage 2
2.5.1 Healthcare improves, death rate falls
2.5.2 Children needed for work, birth rate still high
2.5.3 Life expectancy increased, but still many young people.
2.6 Stage 3
2.6.1 Birth rate falls due to emancipation of women
2.6.2 Better education, more contraception and advances in healthcare.
2.6.3 Longer life spans
2.7 Stage 4
2.7.1 Low birth rate- Urbanisation, children expensive
2.7.2 Low death rate and high life expectancy
2.7.3 Population Growth zero
2.8 Stage 5
2.8.1 People have dependent elderly relatives so there is less money for children
2.8.2 More older people than younger people
2.8.3 Low death rate and birth rate
3 Rapid Population Growth
3.1 Impacts
3.1.1 Economic
3.1.1.1 Lack of jobs; unemployment increases
3.1.1.2 Increased poverty, people born into poor families
3.1.2 Social
3.1.2.1 Healthcare services can't cope with the population so not everyone has access.
3.1.2.2 Children have to work to provide for their families so miss out on an education.
3.1.2.3 Food shortages
3.1.2.4 Lack of housing
3.1.2.4.1 Makeshift houses in overcrowded settlements
3.1.2.4.2 health problems
3.1.2.4.3 No clean water
3.1.2.4.4 Not all houses connected to sewers
3.1.3 Political
3.1.3.1 Government focuses on policies that are important to young people because there are a lot of them.
3.1.3.2 Fewer older people, government focuses less on old people.
3.1.3.3 Government has to make policies to bring population growth under control
3.2 Strategies
3.2.1 Countries need to develop in a sustainable way and control rapid population growth
3.2.2 Birth Control Programmes
3.2.2.1 Aims to reduce birth rate
3.2.2.2 Laws limiting the amount of children people can have
3.2.2.3 Free contraception and sex education
3.2.2.4 Family planning
3.2.2.5 Helps towards sustainable developments
3.2.3 Immigration Laws
3.2.3.1 Governments can limit the number of people that are allowed to immigrate
3.2.3.2 Selective about who they let in (Not child bearing age)
3.2.3.3 Slows population growth
3.3 Case Studies
3.3.1 China
3.3.1.1 Strict population control programme
3.3.1.2 world's largest population
3.3.1.3 One child policy introduced in 1979
3.3.1.4 Benefits for those who conform to the policy
3.3.1.5 Fines for those who have more than 1 child
3.3.1.6 Some exceptions
3.3.1.6.1 Couples allowed 2nd child if 1st is disabled or is a girl
3.3.1.6.2 Couples allowed 2 children is one parent is disabled or the parents are both only children
3.3.1.6.2.1 More children to look after parents
3.3.1.7 Effectiveness
3.3.1.7.1 Has prevented up to 400 million births and fertility rate has dropped from 5.7 (1980) to 1.6
3.3.1.7.2 Older policies about leaving longer gaps between children more effective
3.3.1.7.3 People become more wealthy so want less children
3.3.2 Indonesia
3.3.2.1 4th largest population of any country in the world
3.3.2.2 Unevenly distributed population over the islands
3.3.2.3 Led to social and economic problems (see impacts) on the densely populated islands
3.3.2.4 Transmigration policy started in 1960s
3.3.2.5 Millions of people migrated from the densely populated islands like Java to less densely populated islands such as Sumatra
3.3.2.6 Effectiveness
3.3.2.6.1 Millions moved, but population still not evenly spread
3.3.2.6.2 Not all escaped poverty. Didn't have skills to farm new land or new land too poor to farm
3.3.2.6.3 Conflict between migrants and natives
3.3.2.6.4 Population still getting bigger
4 Ageing Population
4.1 Problems
4.1.1 Population structure- more older people than younger people because of longer lifespans
4.1.2 Usually richer countries
4.1.3 Older people supported by working population. Ageing population means higher proportion of dependent people
4.1.4 Social
4.1.4.1 Healthcare services stretched- older people need more medical care
4.1.4.2 Working population have to spend more leisure time on being unpaid carers for older population, causing stress and worry
4.1.4.3 People can't afford children because they have to look after the older generation
4.1.4.4 More OAPs = pensions are less because government can't afford them. People have to retire later
4.1.5 Economic
4.1.5.1 Working people pay taxes which go towards helping elderly dependents. Taxes will increase as the number of pensioners increases.
4.1.5.2 Economy will grow more slowly as proportion of working population declines
4.1.6 The UK
4.1.6.1 Living longer
4.1.6.1.1 Healthcare
4.1.6.1.2 Living standards
4.1.6.1.3 Life expectancy rose 2.6 years (F) and 6.4 (M) between 1980 and 2006
4.1.6.1.4 Proportion elderly increasing
4.1.6.2 Baby boom between 940 and 1960 creating pensioner boom
4.1.6.3 Birth rate has decreased
4.1.6.4 Working population not large enough to support elderly- pensions too low so live in poverty
4.1.6.5 Government struggling to pay state pension due to lack of tax payer
4.1.6.6 Health service under pressure; average night stay for 75< has decreased
4.1.6.7 Strategies
4.1.6.7.1 Raise retirement age- could be 68 for everyone by 2046
4.1.6.7.2 Encourage Immigration of Young people from other countries- 80% immigrants under 34 (2004)
4.1.6.7.3 Encourage women to have children- tax credits for parent makes children less expensive
4.1.6.7.4 Encourage people to take out private pensions
4.2 Strategies
4.2.1 Encouraging large families to increase the working population
4.2.2 Encouraging the immigration of young working people from other countries
4.2.3 Raising the retirement age so people will be working longer
4.2.4 Raising the working population's taxes
4.2.5 Pink- Unsustainable (population will grow), Blue- Sustainable
5 Migration
5.1 Immigrant- moving into, emigrant- leaving
5.2 Push and Pull factors
5.2.1 Push- War, natural disaster, unemployment (usually source country, bad)
5.2.2 Pull- Positive things in receiving country e.g. better educational/employment oppurtunities
5.3 Impacts
5.3.1 Source
5.3.1.1 Reduced demand on services
5.3.1.2 Money back to families
5.3.1.3 Labour and skills shortage
5.3.1.4 Ageing population
5.3.2 Receiving
5.3.2.1 Increased labour force
5.3.2.2 Migrants pay taxes to fund services
5.4 Within EU
5.4.1 People from the EU can live and work in any other country in the EU
5.4.2 In 2004, 10 countries joined EU resulting in migration
5.4.3 500,000 Poles to UK between 2004 and 2007
5.4.4 Push
5.4.4.1 19% Unemployment in Poland
5.4.4.2 Low average wages
5.4.4.3 300 dwelling for every 1000 people (housing shortage)
5.4.5 Pull
5.4.5.1 UK allowed unlimited migration
5.4.5.2 More work + higher wages
5.4.5.3 Good exchange rates- money sent back worth lots in Poland
5.4.6 Impacts
5.4.6.1 UK
5.4.6.1.1 Slight population increase
5.4.6.1.2 UK economy boosted
5.4.6.1.3 Some money sent home
5.4.6.1.4 Shops opened selling Polish products
5.4.6.1.5 Catholic church attendance increase as many Poles are Catholic
5.4.6.2 Poland
5.4.6.2.1 Poland's Population fell by 0.3% between 2003 and 2007
5.4.6.2.2 Birth rate fell because young people left
5.4.6.2.3 3 billion Euros sent back to families in 2006
5.4.6.2.4 Shortage of workers
5.5 Refugees
5.5.1 Huge numbers of people migrate from Africa to the EU
5.5.2 In 2001, 45000 Africans refused entry to Spain
5.5.3 Many refugees from war
5.5.4 2 million people forced from their homes between 1991 and 2002 due to civil war in Sierra Leone
5.5.5 Only push factors which is threat of violence and death
5.5.6 Impacts
5.5.6.1 Spain
5.5.6.1.1 Social tension
5.5.6.1.2 More unskilled workers
5.5.6.1.3 Average wages fallen for unskilled workers because so many want job
5.5.6.1.4 Birth rate increased because immigrants are young
5.5.6.2 African Countries
5.5.6.2.1 Working population reduced so fewer contributing to economy
5.5.6.2.2 Families become seperated
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