International decision making

Jodie Goodacre
Mind Map by , created almost 6 years ago

A-Levels Geography (Superpower Geographies) Mind Map on International decision making, created by Jodie Goodacre on 12/29/2013.

Jodie Goodacre
Created by Jodie Goodacre almost 6 years ago
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International decision making
1 The leaders of the world's superpowers and emerging powers are frequently on the international stage making key decisions about the world economy, conflicts or environmental issues
2 Global economic and political power is in the hands of a small number of players in the form of inter-governmental organisations (IGOs)
3 IGOs have largely been created by global powers
4 Many IGOs date from the Bretton Woods conference in 1944, when the allies set about creating postwar institutions that would prevent future wars and ensure the world economy ran more effectively than in the pre-war period
5 Critics of IGOs argue that they were set up by superpowers, for superpowers
6.1 1944
6.2 Washington DC
6.3 To monitor the economic and financial development of countries and to lend money when countries are facing financial difficulties
7 World Bank
7.1 1944
7.2 Washington DC
7.3 To give advice, loans and grants for the reduction of poverty and the promotion of economic development
8 UN
8.1 1945
8.2 New York
8.3 To prevent war and to arbitrate on international disputes. It has since developed a wide range of specialist agencies dealing with matters such as health and refugees
9.1 1995
9.2 Geneva
9.3 Trade policy, agreements and settling disputes. It promotes global free trade. Formerly known as GATT (between 1947 and 1944)
10.1 1949
10.2 Brussels
10.3 A military alliance between European countries and the USA. Recent new members include Poland
11.1 1961
11.2 Paris
11.3 Analysis of economic development. Forecasting and researching development issues. Most developed-world countries are members
12 G8
12.1 Some global organisations are less formal and have a very restricted membership
12.2 It is a forum for the world's richest and most powerful nations
12.3 Annual summits are held, although these are informal meetings about the global policy direction the Western democracies should take
12.4 When the G8 leaders meet they represent:
12.4.1 65% of global GNP, but only 14% of the world's population
12.4.2 The holders of most of the world's nuclear weapons, with combined annual military spending of US$859 billion in 2007
12.5 Russia was first invited to a G7 meeting in 1997, thus forming the G8
12.6 This inclusion was an acceptance of Russia's importance as a nuclear and energy resource power
13 Powers in IGOs
13.1 There is a significant overlap in membership of IGOs which gives some powers, especially the EU and the USA, the ability to focus global policy and decision making in their own interests
13.2 Most IGOs operate some form of veto policy, and powers such as the EU and the USA tend to vote with each other
13.2.1 This gives them powers such as the EU and the USA tend to vote with each other This gives them the opportunity to block policies they do not like, and force through their own policies
13.3 Few countries are capable of taking large-scale unilateral actions today
13.3.1 The Iraq War saw the USA effectively 'go it alone', with some support from the UK and other countries
13.3.2 More often IGOs are used, for instance: The NATO-led peacekeeping in former Yugoslavia in 1995-96 and from 2001 in Afghanistan G8-led attempts to focus on the issue of debt and poverty reduction in Africa EU attempts to force through deep carbon emissions cuts targets at the Bali summit in 2007
14 Emerging powers
14.1 While the 'old' powers of the EU and the USA still have considerable clout, there are signs that emerging powers are gaining ground
14.2 In November 2008 the G20 Leaders' Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy was held in Washington DC
14.2.1 This summit discussed responses to the 2008 global financial crisis
15 Davos Group
15.1 The World Economic Forum (WEF or Davos Group) is a Swiss-based non-profit making foundation with the motto 'entrepreneurship is in the global public interest'
15.2 Its focus is on business and profit
15.3 The WEF holds an annual invitation only meeting in Davos, Switzerland
15.4 Those regularly attending meetings at Davos include
15.4.1 Business CEOs
15.4.2 Academics
15.4.3 Political leaders
15.4.4 IGO representatives
15.4.5 The media
15.5 The forum has come under fire from anti-globalisation campaigners and those who see capitalism as creating inequality
15.6 Some observers are suspicious of the Davos Group because it has no 'official' status yet is attended by presidents and prime ministers

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