Principles of IR: Theories

beth.kirby
Mind Map by beth.kirby, updated more than 1 year ago
beth.kirby
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Politics Mind Map on Principles of IR: Theories, created by beth.kirby on 04/14/2013.
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Principles of IR: Theories
1 Realism and Structural Realism
1.1 Classical realism founded between WW1 & WW2 - founding fathers = Edward Carr, Hans Morgenthau
1.1.1 core assumptions: Humans are selfish, egoist. If left in state of nature people will act like animals
1.1.1.1 egoism is restrained within states by hierarchical political rules, but with no govt. at international level, anarchy prevails
1.1.1.1.1 Hence, IR is power politics: Survival, Security, Power Maximisation
1.1.1.1.1.1 Bellum omnium contra omnes
1.2 Thomas Hobbes: The Leviathan: 1. Men are equal, 2. Men interact in anarchy, 3. Men are motivated by competition, diffidence and glory
1.2.1 men agree to give up some of their freedom as to not live in anarchy
1.3 n.b. IR models schematize complexity and allow generalisations
1.4 When self interested states interact in anarchy, violent conflicts can be predicted
1.5 Realist's view: NATO intervened in Libya because it was in the interest of the international states, not to help civilians
1.6 Structural Realism (neo):1970-80s, Waltz, Mearsheimer.
1.6.1 selfish states don't trust each other, they must be self sufficient in order to protect themselves
1.6.1.1 states think in terms of relative gains, not absolute gains - zero sum game, if other states increase their power, i lose power (thus security)
1.6.1.1.1 so, losing a war exhausted is fine, as long as the other states are 'more' exhausted (USA & WW1)
1.6.2 Weaker states fear for security, stronger states compete for hegemony
1.6.3 logic of balancing within the system: developing one's own power & coalition building
1.7 don't take into account norms, humanitarianism, religion
1.7.1 don't see how values, norms, beliefs form national interest/FP
2 Structures
2.1 Bipolar - stable b/c power equally distributed, certainty within the system - Cold War is the Long Peace (J. Gaddis)
2.1.1 Multipolar - less stable b/c unequal distribution of powers, uncertainty of others, arms race (C19th)
2.1.1.1 Unipolar - unstable b/c huge inequalities in power, resentment against hegemon (anti americanism) - greater incentive to stand against hegemon
2.1.1.1.1 terrorism
2.1.1.1.1.1 hegemon more likely to intervene worldwide
3 Liberalism and Institutional Liberalism
3.1 human beings are perfectible
3.1.1 enlightenment philosophy
3.1.1.1 transcendence - inevitability of human progress
3.1.1.1.1 modernity thesis - economic growth = development
3.2 liberalism favours: 1. individual rights (C.L), 2. Constitutionalism & Democracy, 3. Limitation of role of state (only to maintain order)
3.3 Arguments:
3.3.1 1. FREE TRADE: rather than autarky, it favours peace, market capitalism promotes welfare, free trade removes barriers = war less likely
3.3.1.1 2. DEMOCRACY: rather than dictatorship = peaceful world, war useful for elites, not the citizens feeling the brunt (KANT)
3.3.1.1.1 Liberalism has an inside out approach - Endogenous (domestic) factors determines exogenous (international) factors
3.3.1.1.1.1 inside: Free Market Parliamentary Debate Liberal Democracy Protect C.R
3.3.1.1.1.1.1 outside: globalised world, international institutions, peaceful international system, protect of H.R
3.4 Interdependence = anarchy does prevail at the international level, but political coop is possible - it's in economic interests & NGOs/TNCs
3.5 Free trade/economic liberalism = political coop = peace and interdependence = reduce war threat - SPILL OVER EFFECTS
3.5.1 E.G.EEC (technical and economic cooperation in 50s, then military and political coop by 70s)
3.6 Institutional Liberalism: cooperation is organised and formalised in institutions, anarchy is mitigated by institutional coop
3.6.1 institutions encourage coop habits by facilitating technical arrangements (showing benefits), monitoring compliance, sanctioning cheaters
3.6.1.1 world no zero sum game - collective gains
3.7 The Liberal Democratic Peace Thesis: No war between lib dem states since 1945
3.7.1 why? citizens dislike it - accountability
3.7.1.1 free trade engenders peace
3.7.1.1.1 no ground to contest each others legitimacy
3.7.1.1.1.1 share common values - no ideological reason for war
3.7.2 but democracy has a loose definition - Germany before WW1: democratically elected dictator
3.7.3 definition of war - coups/intervention
3.8 lib states fight non lib states b/c: of national security, to spread HR and democratic intervention in regimes
4 Marxism
4.1 challenge realism - class exploitation/economic inequalities. Challenge liberalism - free trade and capitalism isn't best
4.2 Marxist focus: economic inequalities, forms of domination, N-S relations, economic determinism
4.3 dependence theory: criticism of development politics
4.3.1 economic factors determinant, class exploitation, IR is a global system of dominance (N dominates S)
4.4 Core: North/West financial power. Periphery is the South with raw materials & workforce, Core exploits Periphery, elites of core & elites of p. coop
5 Post structuralism:
5.1 doesn't emphasise material forces or power, or distribution of power, emphasis on production of K
5.1.1 how are political processes interpreted and represented, how is reality constructed through representation
5.2 Representation of reality is an act of power
5.2.1 emphasises/promotes one vision over another
5.3 we know who we are because we know who we're not; binary identities - men/women, good/bad, N/S.
5.4 self constructed as superior, other inferior
5.5 POWERS CONSTRUCT KNOWLEDGE AND REALITY
5.5.1 EITHER YOU'RE WITH US OR YOU'RE WITH THE TERRORISTS
5.5.1.1 construction of enemy, solution is war
5.6 power to define greater than material power
6 THE NORTH SOUTH DIVIDE
6.1 North helps South: development and aid (more than $1000 billion since 1950s)
6.1.1 North uses South: Geopolitical interests, resources etc,
6.1.1.1 South threatens the North: immigration, terrorism
6.2 Realist vision for aid
6.2.1 aid form of buying political influence
6.2.1.1 geostrategic considerations, securing alliances, influencing decisions
6.2.2 Aid as a form of securing economic advvantages:
6.2.2.1 buying clients, tied aid
6.2.3 states give because it's in their interests
6.3 Liberalist vision for aid
6.3.1 product of humanitarian values
6.3.1.1 responsibility, liberal value
6.3.2 economic lib
6.3.2.1 promote peace
6.3.2.1.1 stablity
6.3.2.1.1.1 strengthen market capitalism
6.3.2.1.1.1.1 absolute gains
6.4 Marxist vision for giving aid
6.4.1 contributes to exploitation of S
6.4.1.1 conditional aid
6.5 Post structural vision:
6.5.1 questions very concept of development
6.5.1.1 deconstructs representation of S
6.6 one truth - development is the norm to follow
6.6.1 underdevelopment is the problem - solution is economic growth
6.6.1.1 negation of South's agency
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