ESL Approaches & Methods

jbarcher
Mind Map by jbarcher, updated more than 1 year ago
jbarcher
Created by jbarcher about 4 years ago
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ESL approaches and methods mind map
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ESL Approaches & Methods
1 CALLA
1.1 CALLA stands for Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach and is based on the cognitive approach to learning.
1.1.1 Focuses on strengthening curriculum, instruction, and teacher expertise
1.1.1.1 Strives to provide instruction to develop content subject knowledge and English proficiency and literacy
1.1.1.1.1 Focuses on learning through social interaction and cultural context.
1.1.1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1.1.2 Uses developemtally appropriate language instruction
1.1.1.1.1.2.1 Focus on prior knowledge and CALP development in L1 and L2 when related to content area
1.1.1.2 CALLA has three integrated components: content, academic language development, and learning strategies.
1.1.1.2.1 Explicit instruction suggested from the following learning strategies: metacognitive, cognitive, and social/affective
1.2 Instructional concepts of CALLA
1.2.1 Literacy Across the curriculum: teaches language in every subject
1.2.1.1 Language Experience Approach: develops initial language and literacy
1.2.1.1.1 Balanced Reading Approach: provides both phonics and whole language skills
1.2.1.1.1.1 Process Writing: writing in all subjects
1.2.1.1.1.1.1 Cooperative Learning: explicit learning strategy where students work with peers to accomplish a task
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Inquiry based approaches: students investigate problems of personal interest
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Standards- Based Instruction: make sure all lessons are based on standards and these standards/expectations are well communicated to the students
1.2.1.1.1.1.1.2
2 ICB Method
2.1 ICB stands for the Integrated Content-Based Instruction method
2.1.1 Based on the communicative approach of learning, which includes an emphasis on communication, authentic use of literacy in context, and strengthening of all four literacy domains.
2.1.1.1 Language acquisition and content learning should not be separate acts of teaching.
2.1.1.1.1
2.1.1.1.2 Should incorporate higher order thinking skills
2.2 Instructional Concepts of the ICB method
2.2.1 Select a theme to guide the framework of the lesson. Choose topics relevant to the theme.
2.2.1.1 Topics should be maximize planning and appropriate instruction of the lesson for EL students.
2.2.1.1.1 Language and content objectives should be chosen to guide instruction. They should stem from students prior knowledge and background experiences.
2.2.1.1.1.1 Arrange the classroom environment in a way to maximize student engagement. Be sure to accommodate multiple types of student grouping.
2.2.1.1.1.1.1 Integrate literacy and engage students cognitively in all aspects of the lesson.
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1 Provide visual support and graphic organizers
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 Provide formative and summative assessment for students to examine language and content development.
2.2.1.1.1.1.1.1.2
2.2.1.1.1.1.2
3 SIOP Method
3.1 SIOP stands for the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol
3.1.1 Includes an emphasis on all literacy skills of language.
3.1.1.1 Content knowledge and L2 development are goals
3.1.1.1.1 Focuses on terminology for content area and core, grade level curriculum.
3.1.1.1.1.1 Content and ESL standards guide instruction.
3.2 Instructional concepts of SIOP
3.2.1 SIOP method uses strategies such as hands on activities, cooperative learning, guarded vocabulary, and visual support to maximize instruction.
3.2.1.1 Scaffolding instruction is recommended while the EL student's linguistic abilities increase. Scaffolds are gradually removed to provide more responsibility to the student.
3.2.1.1.1 Creation of meaningful activities and adapting the content to be culturally relevant help students to become more successful.
3.2.1.1.1.1 Building background knowledge and making input comprehensible for students are two critical aspects of the SIOP model for instruction,
3.2.1.1.1.1.1 Students must be given opportunities to interact and practice the skills they are learning.
3.2.1.1.1.1.1.1
3.2.2 Sheltered instruction strategies and techniques are applicable to both EL students and grade level students.
3.2.2.1 Teachers should incorporate support of content objectives, support of language objectives, appropriate engagement, and appropriate pacing in the delivery of the instruction.
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