ESL Approaches and Methods

Kristin Glenn
Mind Map by Kristin Glenn, updated more than 1 year ago
Kristin Glenn
Created by Kristin Glenn about 4 years ago
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Module 7
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ESL Approaches and Methods
1 Grammatical Approach
1.1 Grammar-Translation Method
1.1.1 Students learn grammatical rules then apply those rules by translating sentences between the target language and native language
1.1.2 based on the thought that mental discipline was essential for strengtenhing the powers of the mind
1.2 Direct Method
1.2.1 refrains from using the learners native language and uses only the target language
1.2.2 focuses on question and answer patterns
1.3 Audiolingual Method
1.3.1 Grammar structures are carefully sequenced and taught
1.3.2 Emphasizes error correction, drills, and repetitive practive
1.4 Teacher-centered emphasis on the rules and structure of target language
2 Cognative Approach
2.1 The CALLA Method
2.1.1 three primary components
2.1.1.1 1.topics from major content areas, 2.the development of academic language skills, 3.explicit instruction in learning strategies
2.1.2 emphasis on the development of academic language skills targets all four literacy domains
2.1.2.1 listening, speaking, reading, and writing
2.2 Learner-centered focus on explicit teaching of learning strategies in communicative ways
3 Communicative Approach
3.1 Silent Way Method
3.1.1 teachers uses a mixture of silence and gestures to focus student attention, to elicit responses from them, and to encourage them to correct their own mistakes
3.1.2 Seldom content-based
3.2 Natural Way Method
3.2.1 places decreased importance on conscious grammar study and explicit correction of student errors
3.2.2 language output is not forced, but allowed to emerge spontaneously
3.3 Suggestopedia Method
3.3.1 improving concentration, relaxed alertness, and enhanced memorization
3.3.2 emphasises a relaxed physical setting
3.4 The Integrated Content-based (ICB) Method
3.4.1 focus on content and language integration
3.4.2 subject area integrated into thematic units
3.5 The Sheltered Instruction Method
3.5.1 scaffold instruction, visuals, cooperative learning, and guarded vocabulary
3.5.2 grade level modified curriculem
3.6 Student-centered emphasis on communication and meaningful acquisition of knowledge
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