Diabetes Mellitus Type II

Mind Map by oliviayinli, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by oliviayinli about 4 years ago


Mind Map on Diabetes Mellitus Type II, created by oliviayinli on 03/03/2016.

Resource summary

Diabetes Mellitus Type II
1 Pathophysiology
2 Risk Factors
2.1 Pre-diabetes
2.1.1 Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) 2h OGTT: 7.8-11.1 mmol/L (ADA, 2004)
2.1.2 Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) FPG 5.6-6.9 mmol/L (ADA, 2004)
2.2 Genetics
2.3 Obesity
2.4 Aging
2.5 Metabolic Syndrome (Grundy et al., 2004)
2.5.1 Dyslipidemia
2.5.2 Abdominal obesity
3 Diagnosis
5.1.1 Insulin Preparations rapid-acting: peak 1.5-2.5h short-acting (regular): peak 2-4h Intermediate (NPH - cloudy): peak 6-8h Long-acting: no peak Admin self-admin subcutaneous abdomen, buttocks, thigh, deltoid rotate injection sites intravenous
5.1.2 Oral Anti-hyperglycemic Agents α-glucosidase inhibitors mech: slow carb digestion DPP-4 inhibitors mech: slow incretin hormone inactivation Biguinides (i.e. metformin) FIRST-LINE OHA TREATMENT! (Nathan et al., 2009; Inzucchi et al., 2012) Thiazolidinediones mech: decrease insulin resistance sulphonylureas metglitinides mech: increase insulin production by β cells
5.2 STRESS MANAGEMENT (Surwit et al., 2002)
5.2.1 Muscle Relaxation
5.2.2 Cognitive Behavioural Recognizing stressors Guided imagery
5.3.1 150 min/week moderate intensity
5.3.2 Mechs ↓ blood glucose ↑ insulin sensitivity weight loss
5.4.1 Diet Teaching Personalized diet planning (Inzucchi et al., 2012) Fat <7% of daily intake Carbs < 10% of daily intake from sucrose Protein: 15-20% of daily intake
6 Nursing Considerations
6.1 Nursing Process
6.1.1 1. Assessment Learning needs, motivation and the ability to learn Physical history BMI, height, weight, vital signs Current medication Past surgical procedure History of infection Lifestyle Stress Exercise
6.1.2 2. Plan Determine goals and expected outcome with the patient Setting priorities Learning objectives Selecting teaching methods
6.1.3 3. Implementation Home care Importance of medication adherence Travel Adequate medication Diabetic medical bracelet Health promotion Patient education Diet Define the disease Purposeful factiities that can control the disease Self monitoring blood glucose Important resources
6.1.4 4. Evaluation Patient understanding Up-to-date immunizations
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