GCSE AQA Chemistry - Unit 3

James Jolliffe
Flashcards by , created over 4 years ago

The fun reaches its climax in the final installment of the GCSE AQA Chemistry series.

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James Jolliffe
Created by James Jolliffe over 4 years ago
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Question Answer
Who tried to arrange a periodic table in 1864, when only 63 elements were known? John Newlands
Who realised that some elements had yet to be discovered in 1869, and left gaps to allow for their discovery? Dimitri Mendeleev
What are the six elements in group 1 known as? The alkali metals
What are the properties of the elements in group 1? - They have low melting and boiling points. - Have a low density. - Become more reactive as you go down the group.
Why are alkali metals more reactive as you go down the group? Because the outer energy level gets further away from the influence of the nucleus, and so an electron is lost more easily.
What do alkali metals react with non-metals to form? Ionic Compounds
What are the five elements in group 7 known as? Halogens
What is produced when halogens react with metals? Ionic salts
Fill in the missing words: Compared to group 1 elements, transition metals have _____________ melting points, are stronger and are _____________ reactive. Higher Less
A more reactive halogen can ____________ a less reactive halogen from an aqueous solution of its salt. Displace
How is water that is good quality and safe to drink produced? 1. The water is passed through a filter bed to remove any solid particles. 2. Chlorine gas is then added to kill any harmful microorganisms. 3. Fluorine is added to drinking water to reduce tooth decay.
What does the amount of compounds present in tap water determine? Whether it is described as hard or soft water.
Which contains more compounds? Hard water
What type of ion does temporary hard water contain? Hydrogencarbonate ions (HCO3-)
What does soft water readily form with soap? Lather
What does hard water react with soap to form? Scum
What two compounds does most hard water contain? Calcium or Magnesium
What is the difference between permanent and temporary hard water? Permanent hard water remains hard upon heating, whereas temporary decomposes to produce carbonate ions.
What is the advantage of hard water? The dissolved compounds in water are good for your health.
What are the two disadvantages of hard water? - More soap is needed to form a lather, which increases costs. - Using hard water often leads to deposits.
What are the two different ways to remove the dissolved calcium and magnesium ions from hard water to form soft water? 1. Add sodium carbonate solution to it. The carbonates react with the calcium and magnesium ions to form calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate respectively, which precipitate out of solution. 2. Pass the hard water through an ion-exchange column, which contains a resin that supplies hydrogen ions or sodium ions, As the water passes through the resin, the calcium and magnesium ions contained in it are replaced by hydrogen or sodium ions from the resin.
What is the unit of measurement for energy? The Joule (J)
How can you measure the temperature change that takes place when a fuel burns? 1. Place 100g of water in a calorimeter (a container made of glass or metal) and measure the temperature of the water. 2. Find the mass (in grams) of the fuel to be burned. 3. Burn the fuel under the water in the calorimeter for a few minutes. 4. Record the new temperature and calculate the temperature change of the water. 5. Weigh the fuel and calculate how much fuel had been used. 6. The energy released (Q) can be calculated using the following formula: Q=mc∆T
Fill in the missing words: Breaking a chemical bond requires a lot of energy , this is an ____thermic process. When a new chemical bond is formed, energy is given out, this is an ____thermic process. Endothermic Exothermic
What would you see in an energy level diagram for an exothermic reaction? 34983e33-1281-4113-89c5-b166b230bee7.gif (image/gif)
What would you see in an energy level diagram for an endothermic reaction? 00404af9-b8f4-4594-93e3-b1a3d1e8d785.gif (image/gif)
What is the activation energy? The energy needed to start a reaction
What do catalysts do? Reduce the activation energy needed for a reaction.
What can hydrogen be used for? - As a fuel in combustion engines. - In fuel cells, which produce electricity that can be used to power vehicles.
Flame tests can be used to identify metal... ions.
How do you carry out the flame test? - Dip an inoculating loop in Hydrochloric acid. - Dip in compound. - Place loop in flame.
What colours would be observed in a flame test in the presence of: - Barium - Calcium - Lithium - Potassium - Sodium Barium - Green Calcium - Brick red Lithium - Crimson red Potassium - Lilac Sodium - Yellow
What do carbonates react with dilute acids to form? Carbon dioxide (and a salt and water)
Name a base which can be used to form precipitates from metal ions... Sodium hydroxide
What are the colour of these precipitates that are formed when the metal ions are mixed with PREVIOUS ANSWER: - Aluminium - Calcium - Magnesium - Copper (II) - Iron (II) - Iron (III) Aluminium Hydroxide - White Calcium Hydroxide - White Magnesium Hydroxide - White Copper (II) Hydroxide - Blue Iron (II) Hydroxide - Green Iron (III) Hydroxide - Brown
Which metal precipitate out of these, dissolves when excess sodium hydroxide is added? Aluminium Hydroxide
What is formed if dilute hydrochloric acid and barium chloride solution are added to a solution containing sulfate ions? A white precipitate of barium sulfate is produced.
What kind of precipitate do iodide ions form with silver nitrate solution in the presence of nitric acid? Yellow
What kind of precipitate do chlorine ions form with silver nitrate solution in the presence of nitric acid? White
What kind of precipitate do bromide ions form with silver nitrate solution in the presence of nitric acid? Cream
What is titration? An accurate technique that you can use to find out how much of an acid is needed to neutralise an alkali.
Titration method... 1. Wash and rise a pipette with the alkali that you will use. 2. Use the pipette to measure out a known and accurate volume of the alkali. 3. Place the alkali in a clean dry conical flask. Add a suitable indicator, e.g. phenolphthalein. 4. Place the acid in a burette that has been carefully washed and rinsed with the acid. take a reading of the volume of the acid in the burette (initial reading). 5. carefully add the acid to the alkali until the indicator changes colour to show neutrality. This is called the end point. Take a reading of the volume of acid in the burette (final reading). 6. Calculate the volume of acid added.
What is the Haber process used to manufacture? Ammonia
What are the raw materials for the Haber process? - Nitrogen - from the fraction distillation of liquid air. - Hydrogen - From natural gas and steam.
Fill in the gaps: The purified raw materials are passed over an ____ catalyst at a: ____ temperature (about ___°C) ____ pressure (about ___ atmospheres) Iron High, 450°C High, 200
What happens in a closed system? No reactants are added and no products are removed.
When is an equilibrium achieved? When the reactions occur at exactly the same rate in each direction.
In an exothermic reaction, if the temperature is raised, the yield __creases, and vice versa. In an endothermic reaction, if the temperature is raised, the yield __creases, and vice versa. De(creases) In(creases)
In gaseous reactions, an increase in pressure favours the reaction that produces the _____ number of molecules. Least
Fill in the gaps: Alcohols are ______-based molecules that contain the functional group ___. Carbon -OH
How can you turn ethanol into ethanoic acid. Oxidation By either chemical oxidising agents or by microbial action.
Carboxylic acids are carbon-based molecules that contain the functional group... -COOH.
TRUE OF FALSE: Carboxylic acids ionise fully in water, so they are called strong acids. FALSE Carboxylic acids don;'t ionise fully in water, so they are called weak acids.
Alcohols and Carboxylic acids react together to form... esters.
Esters contain the functional group... -COO
What type of compounds are Esters? Volatile (meaning they have a low boiling point).
Carbon Naming System: If there is one carbon atom in a chain, then the molecule's name starts with... Meth-
Carbon Naming System: If there are two carbon atoms in a chain, then the molecule's name starts with... Eth-
Carbon Naming System: If there are three carbon atoms in a chain, then the molecule's name starts with... Prop-
Carbon Naming System: If there are four carbon atoms in a chain, then the molecule's name starts with... But-
What do alcohols do when they get in water? Dissolve to form neutral solutions.
Alcohols react with sodium to form... hydrogen.
What do Carboxylic acids do when they get in water? Dissolve to form acidic solutions.
Carboxylic acids react with carbonates to produce... carbon dioxide.
How can you test for sulfate ions? Add dilute hydrochloric acid and barium chloride to the solution (which you think contains sulfate ions), and if you are right, a white precipitate of barium sulfate is produced.