Structure of prokaryotes

Vinh Tran
Mind Map by Vinh Tran, updated more than 1 year ago
Vinh Tran
Created by Vinh Tran about 4 years ago
4
1

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Heath Science CELS191 Mind Map on Structure of prokaryotes, created by Vinh Tran on 03/05/2016.

Resource summary

Structure of prokaryotes
1 features of a prokaryotic cell
1.1 Flagella
1.1.1 allow for the movement of the cell
1.1.1.1 clockwise rotation
1.1.1.1.1 cell tumbles
1.1.1.2 anticlockwise rotation
1.1.1.2.1 develops movement for cell
1.1.1.3 Allows for directional movement toward or away (Chemotaxis)
1.2 Frimbrie
1.2.1 The hairs of the cell
1.2.2 Allows the cell to stick to surfaces/adohernce e.g hard surfaces
1.2.3 Allows for Genetic transfer from one bacterium to another
1.3 Capsule
1.3.1 slimy layer on the cells surface
1.3.1.1 carbohydrate envelope of glycocalx
1.3.2 prevents the cell/organism to becoming dehydrated/dessicatted in non aqueous environments
1.3.3 resistance to phagocytosis (bacteria being indigested)
1.4 Ribosomes (Prokaryotic cell)
1.4.1 50% smaller than ribosomes found in eurkarotic cells
1.4.2 allows for the synthesis of proteins
1.4.3 target site for some antibiotics to inhibit protein synthesis of the cell and therefore kill it
1.5 Nucleoid
1.5.1 Large strands of DNA (loop) not enclosed by a nuclear membrane
1.6 Plasmid
1.6.1 Small loops of extrachromosomal DNA
1.6.2 important in contributing extracelluar DNA in bacterium
1.6.3 V; Virulence (Can make organism cause diseases)
1.6.4 R; Can cause bacterium to become resistant to antibiotics
1.6.5 B; Bacteriocin (natural antibiotic produced by cell)
1.6.6 F; Fetility (transfer of genes)
1.7 Endospores
1.7.1 cells form spores during unfavourable conditions
1.7.2 condensation of nuclear material such as DNA
1.7.3 material is surrounded by two coats of protein
1.7.3.1 allows DNA to resits damage caused by Heat, Chemicals and desiccation
2 Establishing the difference between Gram Positive (+) and Gram negative (-)
2.1 Gram Postive
2.1.1 Thick outer layer of polytidglycon
2.2 Gram Negative
2.2.1 Thin layer of peptidoglycan
2.2.2 surrounded by two membranes. Outer Membrane and Plasma Membrane
2.3 peptidoglycan is a protein only found in bacteria therefore is a good indicator in determining Gram Positive and Negative bacteria
2.4 Gram Staining
2.4.1 the method used to determine Gram positive and negative bacteria
2.4.1.1 Use of two stains
2.4.1.1.1 treated with iodine to fuse the proteins of the peptidoglycan
2.4.1.1.1.1 colour of stain identifies type bacteria (positive or negative)
2.4.2 violet = positive
2.4.3 pink = negative
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