Isomers

ElectricNotes
Mind Map by ElectricNotes, updated more than 1 year ago
ElectricNotes
Created by ElectricNotes over 5 years ago
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Description

bachelor CHEM110 Mind Map on Isomers, created by ElectricNotes on 03/09/2016.

Resource summary

Isomers

Annotations:

  • same molecular formula
  1. Constitutional Isomers

    Annotations:

    • Different sequence of bonds
    • Same molecular formula, different atom to atom bonding sequence.
    • The number of constitutional isomers increases sharply with size.
    • Drawing Constitutional Isomers Systematically. The molecular formula can tell us some important informationFor CnH2n+2 the molecule is said to be fully saturated – meaning it only contains single (σ) bonds and no rings. For CnH2n the molecule must contain either one double bond or one ring.
    • The number of rings or π-bonds (called double bond equivalents or DBEs) can be calculated from the molecular formula. Double bond equivalents (DBEs) =½(2n4 + n3 –n1 + 2)Example: C3H6On is number of atoms with subscripted valence n4 = C, n3 = N, n1 = H, halogen n4 = 3 n3 = 0 n1 = 6 DBEs = ½(6 + 0  6 + 2) = 1
    • Remember each DBE must be accounted for by a ring or a π-bond for any structure drawn for that molecular formula.
    • Using the molecular formula and the calculated double bond equivalents (DBEs) the potential functional groups can be determined.
    1. Stereoisomers

      Annotations:

      • Different arrangement of groups in space
      1. Conformational Isomers
        1. Configurational Isomers

          Annotations:

          • Interconversion requires breaking bonds
          1. Enantiomers

            Annotations:

            • Non-superimposable mirror images
            1. Diastereomers

              Annotations:

              • Not mirror images
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