13.3 & 13.4 Reactions of Alkenes and Electrophillic Addition

Bee Brittain
Mind Map by Bee Brittain, updated more than 1 year ago
Bee Brittain
Created by Bee Brittain about 4 years ago


AS - Level Chemistry (13 - Alkenes) Mind Map on 13.3 & 13.4 Reactions of Alkenes and Electrophillic Addition, created by Bee Brittain on 03/10/2016.

Resource summary

13.3 & 13.4 Reactions of Alkenes and Electrophillic Addition
1 Addition reactions of the alkenes
1.1 Hydrogen Halides
1.1.1 Alkenes react with gaseous hydrogen halides at room temp to form haloalkanes If alkene is gaseous, reaction take place when two gases are mixed If alkene is liquid, the the hydrogen halide is bubbled through it Alkenes can also react with concentrated HCl or HBr (which are solution of the hydrogen halides in water)
1.2 Each of these reactions involves the ADDITION of a small molecule across the double bond, causing the pi bond to break, and new bonds to form
1.3 Hydrogenation of Alkenes
1.3.1 Nickel Catalyst
1.3.2 423K
1.3.3 Alkene + Hydrogen = Alkane
1.3.4 Hydrogenation of Propene >>
1.4 Hydration reactions of Alkenes
1.4.1 Alkene + Water (steam) --> Alcohol Requires the presence of a phosphoric acid catalyst (H3PO4) Can form a Primary or secondary alcohol
1.5 Halogenation
1.5.1 Rapid addition reaction with the halogens: Cl or Br at room temperature Haloalkane
2 Electrophilic addition in Alkenes
2.1 Alkenes usually take part in addition reactions to form saturated compounds = ELECTROPHILLIC ADDITION
2.1.1 Double bond in an alkene represents region of high electron density due ton presence of pi-electrons High electron density attracts electrophiles Electrophile = An atom that is attracted to an electron-rich centre and accepts an electron pair. Usually a positive ion or molecule containing an atom with a partial positive charge.
2.1.2 ^^ The mechanism
3 Markownikoff's Rule
3.1 You can have a primary or secondary carbocation. This is similar to a primary or secondary alcohol.
3.1.1 Carbocation Stability The stability increases as you go from primary carbocation, through to tertiary carbocation.
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