Sustainable tourism - Myth or Reality?

aira mumin
Mind Map by aira mumin, updated more than 1 year ago
aira mumin
Created by aira mumin about 4 years ago
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Mind Map on Sustainable tourism - Myth or Reality?, created by aira mumin on 15/03/2016.

Resource summary

Sustainable tourism - Myth or Reality?
1 the idea -some countries depend on tourism for development rather than industrilisation
1.1 Definition - tourism that takes into account its current and future economic, environmental and social impacts addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities.
1.1.1 tourism should operate within the capacity of regeneration and future productivity of natural resources (minimise impact and conserve ecosystem), ensure cultural identity is preserved and local people should have an equitable share in economic benefits(employment for locals)
1.1.2 environmental - sell local food to reduce food miles/participate with local businesses, invest in renewables, waste minimisation, efficient transport
1.1.2.1 social - reinvesting profits to local communities, promote local culture. economic - employ local residents
1.1.3 form of sustainable tourism = ecotourism -small scale activity which constitutes less than 5% of market. in order to be successful - num of visitors must be limited and must be run by local people. minimises impact on enviro/ecosystems & creates economic opportunities
1.1.3.1 mass tourism - degrade local environment and cultures - priorities are economic
2 why it's a myth (not sustainable): resorts are usually in remote locations - so increase in travel. high concentration of visitors and poor transport infrastructure (no roads) damages environment
3 Mass tourism - Kenya - Masai Mara game reserve
3.1 gets over 700,000 visitors per year because of diverse landscape (mountains/ coral reefs/savannahs), warm climate and wildlife safaris, beaches along coastline - contributes 15% of GNP
3.1.1 environmental advantage: 23 national parks - tourists pay fee to enter which is used to maintain those parks which protect environment. tourists charged to visit development which is used to improve architecture/healthcare/water supply in lamu
3.1.1.1 however - safari vehicles have destroyed vegetation/ soil erosion. coral reefs in Malindi marine national park have been damaged by tourist boats anchoring and water sports (140 tonnes of shells removed from reefs), wildlife have been affected eg feeding and breeding. tourists have put huge pressure on natural resources and wildlife habitats. wastewater is discharged into mara river from hotels/camps worsening water levels
3.1.2 social negative - marginalised local population - massai tribes people were forced off land to create national parks. western culture has offended Muslim people in the swahilian society
3.1.3 economic negative - only 15% of money earned through tourism goes to locals - the rest goes to large companies - unreliable - results in seasonal unemployment - doesn't alleviate poverty
3.1.3.1 Economic benefits - has created jobs and led to indirect employment in local businesses (multiplier effect)
3.2 Management (sustainable tourism) - walking & horseback riding have been promoted to reduce pressure on safari areas, anti harassment patrols set up, flow of tourists have been controlled and distributed to Tsavo west national park and masai villages - to preserve environment and more managed. in masai mara basecamp, there has been extensive use of solar power,LED bulbs, and solar cookers (appropriate tech). garbage is sorted and composted
4 Coastal tourism - Dubai
4.1 Environmental disadvantage - sand used to create palm jumeirah islands have been dredged from Persian Gulf which have buried coral reefs. there has been a fall in local fish population as a result of habitat degradation. sediment erosion/deposition through long shore drift means palms will need constant artificial sediment redistribution. desert ecosystem has been damaged by tourist activity such as riding over sand dunes - artificial channels created speeds up rate of erosion
4.1.1 environmental advantage - sustainable ecotourism by CBOs have been promoted -desert safaris include visits to the Dubai Desert Conservation Reserve - visitors educated about environment and staff are employed to undertake ecological programmes. through careful management and monitoring threatened gazelle species have been reintroduced
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