1 Rhetoric, effective
manipulation of language,
especially in public
1.1 Athena's plea to Zeus in the
divine assembly on Olympus.
1.1.1 Rhetoric is
1.1.2 Athena uses irony to
make her point
126.96.36.199 Zeus and the other gods never again allow a
mortal king to be a kind or just since
Odysseus' fate has established that those
characteristics are not rewarded.
2.1 A series of apparent contradictions
2.1.1 Much more complex character than
you would normally find in any
stereotypical epic hero
2.1.2 Odysseus is first shown alone
weeping, apparently defeated, on
2.2 First appearance is
2.3 Leaves Ogygia
with much joy
2.4 Ability to endue
2.5 Ability to think for himself under pressure and
weigh all the options to consider and come up
with his own intelligent solution.
2.6 Unaware of the divine help
he is receiving.
3 Double Standard in morality.
3.1 Penelope's fidelity is expected
where as Odysseus has
3.1.1 Homer's audience have no difficulty in
reconciling these differences.
3.1.2 Does not occur to Odysseus or Homer that he
has one code of behaviour for himself and
another for Odysseus.
3.2 Calypso rants about the
3.2.1 "unrivalled lords of jealousy"
188.8.131.52 Gods think nothing of relations with mortal
women but condemn female gods having
affairs with mortal men.
4 Calypso's Plea
4.1 Promises to save him from having to face
future woes and grant him importality
4.1.1 Quality no other human in
the Odyssey has.
4.1.2 Odysseus isn't
184.108.40.206 Just wants to return home to his wife
4.2 Embodies the tension in
4.2.1 He wants to return home but he
is also tempted by Calypso's
4.3 Rhetorically asks him one last
time to stay and Odysseus
4.3.1 Suggests that she knows how
tempting the offer is
4.3.2 The fact that Odysseus can refuse it
and embrace the "pains" she
for-tells shows how compelling his
4.4 Commentators are split in the
interpretation of Calypso's
extraordinary plea to the Gods
4.4.1 Realistic, unflinching account
in the ways in which things
worked in the Patriarchal
culture of Ancient Greece
220.127.116.11 Men of both the mortal and
divine world get away with
18.104.22.168 Society expects females
to be faithful at all times
4.4.2 Calypso reacting to this reality
22.214.171.124 Sympathetic to Calypso who is
making a passionate critique of
social norms that are genuinely
4.4.3 When considering the relationship between
Penelope and Odysseus, the poet presents
Odysseus' affair without rebuke whilst
looking with askance at Penelope's
indulgence of the suitors although her
fidelity to Odysseus never wavers
4.4.4 Calypso's speech is taken as a criticism of
126.96.36.199 The text portrays to contrary
attitudes towards sexual
188.8.131.52 Condemns the unfair double
standard that Homer deploys upon
5 The opening scene on Olympus is a change in
location from the real world of contemporary
Ithaca to the more fabulous world of Odysseus's
5.1 Homer effortlessly blends the transition.
5.1.1 Represents the idea that the immortal and mortal worlds
were an every day aspect of Greek life.
184.108.40.206 184-6, Earth...immortals
220.127.116.11.1 Invokes the whole cosmos, therefore enhancing its meaning
and giving it more weight.
5.2 The prologue may have been used to
introduce a version of the Odyssey without
5.2.1 Flexibility of the oral poets art.
5.2.2 Is the Telamachy a latter
5.2.3 Could just be a summary of past
events to keep the audience up to
5.3 By representing the divine council,
Homer re-emphasises the extent of
divine concern for Odysseus and
5.3.1 Reinforces the idea that Odysseus'
and Telemachos' fates are
6 Ancient Greeks placed absolute value in a man's
loyalty to his household.
6.1 A man who had an affair with a goddess or slave as
opposed to a woman of a married household wan not
thought to have compromised this primary bond.
7.1 Derived from 'kalupto'
7.1.1 I cover/ conceal
7.2 Her primary purpose is to keep
Odysseus on Ogygia long enough
for Telemachos to grow up.
7.2.1 Likely Homer invented her for
7.3 The Daughter of Atlas.
7.3.1 Obviously resents divine interference
and she does not give up easily.
7.4 Readjusts the truth with exquisite delicacy in the
face of divine will
7.4.1 Justifies her behaviour with
elegant half truths.
8 Homeric Hero
8.1 Only considered a hero in
the eyes of his peers who
witnessed his heroic deeds.
8.1.1 38, bestowed bronze and gold
18.104.22.168 Greek heroes were judged by their
standing in others eyes. Wealth was
an important index of standing,
especially wealth won in war.
8.2 Odysseus is aware that he must prove
his identity over again in
circumstances that are very different
to those of the Trojan War.
8.3 Telemachos is seeking to find his own identity
9.1 Illiadic techniques that is rare in the Odyssey.
9.1.1 Cluster of similes around an exciting
scene which develop on the back of
22.214.171.124 They are all to do with wind
9.1.2 The Odyssey has a less charged
atmosphere due to there being
less death scenes.
10 Ino and her husband were driven
mad by Hero
10.1 Her husband had killed her first born son
and threatened to kill their second
10.1.1 Ino jumped into the sea with her son
10.1.1.1 Homer uses the myth effectively
here as she is a goddess who is
sympathetic to the mortals in a
trouble at sea.