Elections

sallybooth
Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Politics Mind Map on Elections, created by sallybooth on 04/17/2013.

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sallybooth
Created by sallybooth over 6 years ago
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Elections
1 Functions of Elections
1.1 Judging the performance of the current government in power
1.2 Electing MP's to represent the constituency
1.3 Deciding between political programmes
1.4 Choosing leaders
1.5 Granting a mandate
2 Definitions
2.1 Electoral Mandate - The authority given to a winning party
2.2 Electoral Manifesto - Statement released by parties before an election stating policies they wish to enforce
2.3 Electoral System - Converts votes into seats
3 Links between Democracy & Elections
3.1 Negatives
3.1.1 Elections don't give PR and FPTP favours certain parties
3.1.2 Governments can get elected on a minority vote
3.1.3 Large parties have disproportionate funds
3.2 Positives
3.2.1 Eledctions are free to participate in with few voter restrictions
3.2.2 Most people are able to form a party and stand for election
3.2.3 Free info & free media
3.2.4 Deliver a democratic mandate
3.2.5 Free from corruption
4 First Past The Post
4.1 Advantages
4.1.1 Each constituency returns one MP
4.1.2 Stops smaller parties getting too much power
4.1.3 Strong government
4.1.4 Voters have 1 vote, easy and quick
4.1.5 Only 1 candidate per constutuency
4.1.6 Clear outcomes
4.1.7 Clear winner e.g May 2010 Conservatives - 10,738,826 votes = 307 seats & Labour - 8,609,527 votes = 258 seats
4.2 Disadvantages
4.2.1 Seats not in proportion to votes
4.2.2 Small and independent parties ignored
4.2.3 Some votes count more than others
4.2.4 Can be elected without 50% of vote e.g Glenda Jackson
4.2.5 All other votes from non winning party mean nothing
5 Other Electoral Systems
5.1 AMS
5.1.1 How?
5.1.1.1 Ensures PR
5.1.1.2 Seats awarded by list
5.1.1.3 1/3rd list closed
5.1.1.4 2/3rds elected by FPTP
5.1.2 Where?
5.1.2.1 Welsh Assembly
5.1.2.2 Scottish Parliament
5.2 SV
5.2.1 How?
5.2.1.1 Top 2 choices are added on
5.2.1.2 More than 50% win
5.2.1.3 Voters have 2 preferences
5.2.2 Where?
5.2.2.1 London Mayor election
5.2.2.2 Australian house of reps
5.3 STV
5.3.1 How?
5.3.1.1 Rest if preferences are redistributed
5.3.1.2 Repeated until achieved quota
5.3.1.3 Voters rank candidates
5.3.2 Where?
5.3.2.1 Northern Ireland
5.3.2.2 Republic of Ireland
5.4 Regional Lists
5.4.1 How?
5.4.1.1 Closed: No choice
5.4.1.2 Open: Voters can show a preference
5.4.1.3 Voters vote for list
5.4.1.4 Parties produce list per region
5.4.1.5 Seats are PR
5.4.2 Where?
5.4.2.1 Israel
5.4.2.2 Most of Europe
5.4.2.3 UK for MEP's
6 Electoral Reform Debate
6.1 For
6.1.1 Represents the electorate better
6.1.2 Voters given more choice
6.1.3 Use of second vote is better
6.1.4 Value of votes is better
6.1.5 With lists for example, people can choose more
6.2 Against
6.2.1 Referendim campaign alerted public to the drawbacks of alternative systems
6.2.2 2012 general election caused a hung parliament
6.2.3 For lists people may vote unfavouringly
6.2.4 Lib dems became unsupportive so declined
7 Proportional Representation
7.1 Impact on...
7.1.1 AMS
7.1.1.1 More diverse range of parties
7.1.1.2 More parties get administrative power
7.1.1.3 Enhances representation
7.1.1.4 Minor party representation in Scotland
7.1.2 STV
7.1.2.1 Preserves large constituencies
7.1.2.2 High proportional result
7.1.2.3 Voters have wider choice
7.1.2.4 Favours smaller parties
7.1.2.5 Coalitions are inevitable
7.1.2.6 Structure of parliament will change
7.1.3 Lists
7.1.3.1 Accurately proportional
7.1.3.2 Multi- party system
7.1.3.3 Gives smaller parties representation
7.1.3.4 Eliminates constituencies
7.2 For
7.2.1 Would be more representative
7.2.2 Stronger democracy
7.2.3 More authority & legitimacy
7.2.4 More votes would count
7.2.5 Allows smaller parties
7.2.6 More choice
7.2.7 Prevents 2 part systems
7.2.8
7.3 Against
7.3.1 Weak government
7.3.2 Increased coalitions
7.3.3 More time consuming
7.3.4 Unstable government
7.3.5 Constituency link may be lost
7.3.6 Extremist parties can flourish

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