Pressure Groups

Mind Map by sallybooth, updated more than 1 year ago
Created by sallybooth almost 8 years ago


Politics Mind Map on Pressure Groups, created by sallybooth on 04/17/2013.

Resource summary

Pressure Groups
  1. Functions of Pressure Groups
    1. Relevant political participation
      1. Provide relevant opportunity
        1. e.g 'tax payers alliance' organise online petitions
        2. Governing process involvement
          1. Play a key role in the governing process and stages of policy
            1. e.g National farmers union helped shape agricultural policy
            2. Help indivudual MP's
              1. Help promote private members legislation
                1. e.g Music industry groups got the live music act 2012
                2. Representing
                  1. Representing specific society sections
                    1. e.g Age UK represent the elderly's interests
                    2. Educating
                      1. Informing the public
                        1. e.g friends of the earth publicise environmental issues
                        2. Scrutinising
                          1. Suggesting improvements
                            1. e.g medical groups like RCN shape NHS reform
                            2. Make government accountable
                              1. Help government more responsible & accountable
                              2. Opportunity
                                1. 'Tension release'
                                  1. e.g the 'occupy' movement, opportuntiy for protest about finance
                                2. The differences between party and pressure group
                                  1. Party
                                    1. Seeking to achieve power / government responsibilities
                                      1. Must accept responsibility for policy etc
                                        1. Have to adopt policy along with government responsibility
                                          1. Have to behave in a responsible way
                                          2. Pressure Group
                                            1. Not always after seeking power
                                              1. Will never have to account for their actions e.g Greenpeace can safely oppose potentially harmful causes
                                                1. Do not accept restrictions of potential government
                                                  1. Often break the law
                                                2. Types of Pressure Group
                                                  1. Sectional / interest groups
                                                    1. Represent a specific section of society
                                                      1. Self interested
                                                        1. e.g trade unions
                                                          1. e.g tax payers alliance
                                                          2. Cause, issue or promotional groups
                                                            1. claim to be representing the whole of society
                                                              1. Have one or a cluster of issues they wish to promote
                                                                1. e.g Greenpeace
                                                                  1. e.g friends of the earth
                                                                  2. Dual - Function
                                                                    1. Can be both sectional and cause based
                                                                      1. e.g the countryside alliance campaigns for rural areas but also everyone
                                                                        1. e.g transport 2000
                                                                        2. Insiders
                                                                          1. Operate inside of teh political system through contacts with MP's etc
                                                                            1. Regularly consulted by government
                                                                            2. Outsiders
                                                                              1. No special links with government
                                                                                1. Influence by mobilising public opinion
                                                                              2. How democratic are Pressure Groups?
                                                                                1. Are..
                                                                                  1. Representative
                                                                                    1. Educate the public
                                                                                      1. Political participation
                                                                                        1. Supporting minority influence
                                                                                        2. Aren't...
                                                                                          1. Accountability
                                                                                            1. Putting someone up for office
                                                                                              1. Size & finances
                                                                                            2. Methods of Pressure groups
                                                                                              1. Mobilising Public Opinion
                                                                                                1. If a party wishes to retain power it has to promote for it
                                                                                                  1. e.g2005 election to gain more elderly votes
                                                                                                    1. e.g 2010 lib dems concentrated on young voters with tuition fees policy
                                                                                                    2. Lobbying
                                                                                                      1. Behind closed doors
                                                                                                        1. Discussions constantly going on
                                                                                                          1. e.g the welfare reform legislation of 2011/12 was the subject of intense lobbying
                                                                                                          2. Parliamentary Methods
                                                                                                            1. Some peers of the HOL back pressure groups
                                                                                                              1. Some MP's paid to fight groups causes in HOC
                                                                                                                1. e.g Live music act 2012
                                                                                                                  1. .g 2012 health & social care act
                                                                                                                  2. Direct Action
                                                                                                                    1. Groups seek to obtain maximum publicity
                                                                                                                      1. Can involve stunts/ provocative behaviour
                                                                                                                        1. Government are forced to respond
                                                                                                                          1. e.g fathers4justice dressed as super heroes and climbed buildings
                                                                                                                        2. Why are pressure groups growing in importance?
                                                                                                                          1. Direct Action
                                                                                                                            1. Can exert more pressure on the government
                                                                                                                              1. Gain automatic attention from the government / they have to react
                                                                                                                              2. Devolution
                                                                                                                                1. Forced to move some operations
                                                                                                                                  1. Smaller issues mean smaller groups consulted more
                                                                                                                                  2. Extra party institutions
                                                                                                                                    1. Closer relationship with decision making
                                                                                                                                      1. think tanks, policy units, private advisors, wokring parties
                                                                                                                                      2. Human rights act
                                                                                                                                        1. Reinforces rights
                                                                                                                                          1. Passed 1998 came into practice 2000
                                                                                                                                          2. Access points
                                                                                                                                            1. easy to organise / participate in
                                                                                                                                              1. Range of bodies
                                                                                                                                                1. Mobilising opinion is easier
                                                                                                                                                2. Participation
                                                                                                                                                  1. Campaign on sections
                                                                                                                                                    1. Growing membership
                                                                                                                                                    2. EU
                                                                                                                                                      1. Accept pressure groups
                                                                                                                                                        1. Lobby groups sent 4,400 lobbyists to parliament in 2010
                                                                                                                                                        2. Digital Democracy
                                                                                                                                                          1. Using things such as the unternet to gain support
                                                                                                                                                            1. Can reinforce
                                                                                                                                                              1. Social communities
                                                                                                                                                                1. e-petitions can pressure issues to get debated
                                                                                                                                                              2. Success of pressure groups?
                                                                                                                                                                1. Size
                                                                                                                                                                  1. nfluence by weight of public opinion
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Translates into voting power
                                                                                                                                                                      1. e.g age UK 70/80% of population are pensioners
                                                                                                                                                                      2. Organisation
                                                                                                                                                                        1. May not actually make an impact
                                                                                                                                                                          1. e.g plane stupid & greenpeace have been successful
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Organisation is key
                                                                                                                                                                            2. Opposition Groups
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Group with no opponent more likely to succeed
                                                                                                                                                                                1. e.g farming industry is opposed by animal welfare groups
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Insider Status
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Groups with ongoing contact with the government do enjoy an advantage
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Celeb involvement
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. e.g Hugh grant is well known for hacked off
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Depends on celebrity
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Naomi Campbell seen wearing fur when in PETA campaign
                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Finance
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. e.g tobacco ban in public places
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. trade unions have money but still fuitle
                                                                                                                                                                                            2. Philosophy
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. e.g hacked off exerted pressure on labour
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. e.g busniess groups have done well under the conservatives
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Beliefs closer to the government's = more succeeding
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