Methods of maintaining biodiversity

Megan Booth
Mind Map by Megan Booth, updated more than 1 year ago
Megan Booth
Created by Megan Booth about 4 years ago


Mind Map on Methods of maintaining biodiversity, created by Megan Booth on 03/22/2016.

Resource summary

Methods of maintaining biodiversity
1 In situ conservation
1.1 This takes place inside an organism's natural habitat. It maintains the genetic diversity of species and evolutionary adaptions which allows organisms to survive. It also preserves interlinked species. It is generally cheaper than ex situ conservation.
1.2.1 Controlled grazing- Only allowing livestock to graze a particular area of land for a certain period of time for the species to recover, or keeping a controlled number of animals in a habitat to maintain it.
1.2.2 Restricting human access- Providing paths or for example not allowing people to visit a beach in seal reproductive season.
1.2.3 Controlling poaching- Creating defences to prevent access or issuing fines. In extreme cases an example is the removal of rhino horns.
1.2.4 Feeding animals- So more animals survive to the reproductive age
1.2.5 Reintroduction of species- Adding animals to locally extinct areas (or where population has dropped significantly)
1.2.6 Removal of invasive species- (a species which is not native to the area and has a negative effect on the economy, environment or health, this organisms compete with native species for resources)
1.2.7 Halting succession- (succesion is a natural process in which early colonising species are replaced over time until a stable mature population is achieved. This is important in maintaining some of our most beautiful habitats for future generations.
1.3.1 Lundy Island is currently the only one in the UK
1.3.2 These are vital in maintaining species-rich areas e.g. coral reefs which are devastated by non-sustainable fishing methods. Their purpose is too create areas of refuge where populations can build up.
1.3.3 Large areas of sea are required for marine reserves as target species often move large distances or breed in different areas.
1.4.1 The Bat Conservation Trust is not just looking to protect bats and roosts but also improving and enhancing the broader landscape for bats. They are working to Improve the the landscape for the rare Lesser horseshoe bat around key sites in Wales for the Landscape for Lessers project.
2 Ex situ conservation
2.1.1 Plant species can been grown successfully here, species are managed to provide them with the best resources e.g. soil nutrients. Braunschweig Botanical Garden
2.1.2 Worldwide there is roughly 1500, holding 35000 plant species, however, a majority of species are not conserved. Many relatives of selectively bred crop species are under-represented amongst the conserved species. These wild species are a potential source of genes, conferring resistance to diseases, pests and parasites.
2.2 This involves the removal of organisms from their natural habitat to ensure the survival of the species.
2.3.1 This is example of a gene bank (a store of genetic material), seeds are carefully stores so new plants may be grown in future. Scientists believe that seeds stored this way may be viable for many centuries, providing a back-up against extinction of wild plants e.g. the Scalbard 'Doomsday vault' In Norway will eventually have 3 million different types of seeds.
2.3.2 Seed banks don't work for all plants. Some seeds will die when dried and frozen e.g. most tropical rainforest trees.
2.4.1 These produce an offspring of species in a human-controlled environment. Often run by zoos and aquatic centres e.g. The National Marine Aquarium in South West England helps conserve sea horse species.
2.4.2 These are used by scientists to create a stable, healthy population of a species and then gradually reintroduce the species back into its natural habitat e.g. The Arabian Oryx.
2.4.3 They provide the animals with shelter, nutritious food, no predators and veterinary treatment.
2.4.4 Maintaining genetic biodiversity within a captive breeding population can be difficult as only a small number of breeding partners are available so interbreeding can occur. To over come this, an international catalogue is used to make sure genetic diversity is maximised. Techniques such as artificial insemination allow new genetic lines to be introduced without having to transport animals to new locations.
2.4.5 Some organisms born in captivity may not be suitable for release into the wild because... Diseases- Captive-bred populations may not have resistance to local diseases or not of had the chance to to develop resistance to new diseases in the wild. Behaviour- Some behaviour is innate but some has to be learned through experience, e.g. some monkeys have starved as they don;t know how to search for food & have become too domesticated. To overcome this, food is now hidden in cages so that animals learn to search for it Genetic races- The genetic make-up of some captive animals is so different to the original population they cannot interbreed. Habitat- In many cases the natural habitat must first be restored to allow captive populations to be reintroduced. If only a small suitable habitat for the species it is likley the habitat already has full capacity. The introduction of new species can lead to mention and stress.
2.5.1 In 1950s The rarity of the red kite made it a prime target for egg collectors and bounty hunters, who robbed up to a quarter of nests each year. In the 1980s it became apparent that due to the low rate of chick production by the Welsh kites, largely caused by the marginal habitat the birds live in, combined with the activities of egg collectors and illegal poisoning, the birds would be unlikely to be able to spread out of Wales.
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