1.1 This takes place inside an organism's natural habitat. It maintains
the genetic diversity of species and evolutionary adaptions which
allows organisms to survive. It also preserves interlinked species.
It is generally cheaper than ex situ conservation.
1.2 WILDLIFE RESERVES
1.2.1 Controlled grazing- Only allowing livestock
to graze a particular area of land for a
certain period of time for the species to
recover, or keeping a controlled number of
animals in a habitat to maintain it.
1.2.2 Restricting human access- Providing paths or
for example not allowing people to visit a
beach in seal reproductive season.
1.2.3 Controlling poaching-
Creating defences to prevent
access or issuing fines. In
extreme cases an example is
the removal of rhino horns.
1.2.4 Feeding animals- So
more animals survive
to the reproductive age
1.2.5 Reintroduction of species-
Adding animals to locally
extinct areas (or where
population has dropped
1.2.6 Removal of invasive species- (a species which is not native to the
area and has a negative effect on the economy, environment or
health, this organisms compete with native species for resources)
1.2.7 Halting succession- (succesion is a natural process in
which early colonising species are replaced over time
until a stable mature population is achieved. This is
important in maintaining some of our most beautiful
habitats for future generations.
1.3 MARINE CONSERVATION ZONES
1.3.1 Lundy Island is currently
the only one in the UK
1.3.2 These are vital in maintaining species-rich areas e.g.
coral reefs which are devastated by non-sustainable
fishing methods. Their purpose is too create areas of
refuge where populations can build up.
1.3.3 Large areas of sea are required for
marine reserves as target species
often move large distances or
breed in different areas.
1.4 BAT CONSERVATION
1.4.1 The Bat Conservation Trust is not just looking to protect bats and roosts
but also improving and enhancing the broader landscape for bats. They
are working to Improve the the landscape for the rare Lesser horseshoe
bat around key sites in Wales for the Landscape for Lessers project.
2 Ex situ
2.1 BOTANIC GARDENS
2.1.1 Plant species can been grown
successfully here, species are managed
to provide them with the best resources
e.g. soil nutrients.
2.1.2 Worldwide there is roughly 1500, holding 35000 plant species,
however, a majority of species are not conserved. Many relatives
of selectively bred crop species are under-represented amongst
the conserved species. These wild species are a potential source
of genes, conferring resistance to diseases, pests and parasites.
2.2 This involves the removal
of organisms from their
natural habitat to ensure
the survival of the species.
2.3 SEED BANKS
2.3.1 This is example of a gene bank (a store of genetic
material), seeds are carefully stores so new plants
may be grown in future. Scientists believe that
seeds stored this way may be viable for many
centuries, providing a back-up against extinction of
wild plants e.g. the Scalbard 'Doomsday vault' In
Norway will eventually have 3 million different
types of seeds.
2.3.2 Seed banks don't work for all plants. Some seeds
will die when dried and frozen e.g. most tropical
2.4 CAPTIVE BREEDING PROGRAMMES
2.4.1 These produce an offspring of species in a human-controlled
environment. Often run by zoos and aquatic centres e.g. The
National Marine Aquarium in South West England helps
conserve sea horse species.
2.4.2 These are used by scientists to create a stable, healthy
population of a species and then gradually reintroduce the
species back into its natural habitat e.g. The Arabian Oryx.
2.4.3 They provide the animals with shelter, nutritious
food, no predators and veterinary treatment.
2.4.4 Maintaining genetic biodiversity within a captive breeding
population can be difficult as only a small number of
breeding partners are available so interbreeding can occur.
22.214.171.124 To over come this, an international catalogue is used
to make sure genetic diversity is maximised.
Techniques such as artificial insemination allow new
genetic lines to be introduced without having to
transport animals to new locations.
2.4.5 Some organisms born in
captivity may not be suitable for
release into the wild because...
126.96.36.199 Diseases- Captive-bred
populations may not have
resistance to local diseases or not
of had the chance to to develop
resistance to new diseases in the
188.8.131.52 Behaviour- Some behaviour is
innate but some has to be learned
through experience, e.g. some
monkeys have starved as they
don;t know how to search for food
& have become too domesticated.
184.108.40.206.1 To overcome this, food is now hidden in
cages so that animals learn to search for it
220.127.116.11 Genetic races- The genetic make-up of some
captive animals is so different to the original
population they cannot interbreed.
18.104.22.168 Habitat- In many cases the natural habitat must
first be restored to allow captive populations to
be reintroduced. If only a small suitable habitat
for the species it is likley the habitat already has
full capacity. The introduction of new species can
lead to mention and stress.
OF THE RED KITE
2.5.1 In 1950s The rarity of the red kite made it a prime target for egg collectors and bounty
hunters, who robbed up to a quarter of nests each year. In the 1980s it became apparent
that due to the low rate of chick production by the Welsh kites, largely caused by the
marginal habitat the birds live in, combined with the activities of egg collectors and illegal
poisoning, the birds would be unlikely to be able to spread out of Wales.