Chemistry 4: Module 1

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Specification points for unit 4 module 1. With links to notes on each sub-topic.

Created by chloeap almost 6 years ago
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Chemistry Unit 4 flashcards
Unit 4: Module 1 - Rings, Acids and Amines
Chemistry 4: Module 1
1 Arenes
1.1 Structure of benzene


1.1.1 Kekule's model
1.1.2 Delocalised model
1.1.3 Evidence Bond length Enthalpy change of hydrogenation Resistance to reaction
1.2 Electrophilic substitution of arenes
1.2.1 General mechanism
1.2.2 Resistance to bromination of benzene
1.2.3 Examples With concentrated nitric acid in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid With a halogen in the presence of a halogen carrier
1.3 Phenols
1.3.1 Reaction with aqueous alkalis and with sodium
1.3.2 Reaction with bromine
1.3.3 Ease of bromination of phenol compared with benzene
1.3.4 Uses of phenols
2 Carbonyl Compounds
2.1 Reactions of carbonyl compounds
2.1.1 Oxidation of alcohols using acidified potassium dichromate Primary alcohols Control of products using different conditions Secondary alcohols
2.1.2 Oxidation of aldehydes using acidified potassium dichromate
2.1.3 Reduction using NaBH4
2.1.4 Mechanism of nucleophilic addition reactions
2.2 Characteristic tests
2.2.1 2,4-DNP Detect carbonyl group Identify from derivative
2.2.2 Tollens' reagent Distinguishing aldehydes and ketones Oxidation equations
3 Carboxylic Acids and Esters
3.1 Properties of carboxylic acids
3.1.1 Explain solubility
3.1.2 Describe reactions with... Metals Carbonates Bases
3.2 Esters, triglycerides, unsaturated and saturated fats
3.2.1 Esterification of... Carboxylic acids and alcohols Acid anhydrides and alcohols
3.2.2 Hydrolysis of esters In acid conditions In alkali conditions
3.2.3 Uses of esters
3.2.4 Triglyceride as triester of glycerol and acids
3.2.5 Compare structures of saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and fatty acids Health concerns and cholesterol
3.2.6 Uses in biodiesel
4 Amines
4.1 Basicity of amines
4.1.1 Explain
4.1.2 Describe reactions with acids
4.2 Preparation of amines
4.2.1 Aliphatic amines
4.2.2 Aromatic amines
4.2.3 Conditions of both
4.3 Synthesis of azo dyes
4.3.1 Reaction of aromatic amine
4.3.2 Formation of diazonium ion
4.3.3 Coupling with phenol
4.3.4 Use of reactions in formation of dyestuffs

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