(2) To what extent have political
ideologies changes in the UK?
1 What is Social democracy
1.1 Social democracy is an ideological stance that supports
a broad balance between a capitalist or market economy
on the one hand and state intervention on the other
1.2 Although some see social democracy as a
betrayal of socialism because it accepts the
contining need for capitalis. Others view it as
the only practical form of socialism.
1.3 Key goals of
social democy is:
1.3.1 Reform or "humanized" capitalism, based on the
economic efficiency that only capitalism can deliver
and an enduring belief in equality and social justice
2 What is One Nation conservatism
2.1 It is an pragmatic and paternalistic form
of conservatism that was prominent
during the 1950s and 1960s.
2.2 One nation ideas can be traced back to the
early writings of Benjamin Disraeli, Disraeli
arned aginst the dangers of Britian being
divided into "two nations: the rich and the poor".
2.3 His call for social reform to narrow (but not remove) social
inequalities was based on the principles of paternalism. The rich
therefor have an obligation to attend to the needs of the poor.
3 What is Consensus politics
3.1 An overlap of ideological positions between two or more
political parties; an agreement about fundamental policy goals
that permits disagreement on matters of detail or emphasis
4.1 What is Thatcherism
4.1.1 Thstcherism does not so much constitute
a coherent and systematic philosophy as
an attempt to many two distinct tradtions.
4.1.2 Although there is political and ideological
tensions between these distinct, they can be
combined in support of the goals of a strong but
minimal state: "the free market and a strong state"
4.1.3 The two elements
within Thatcherism are:
126.96.36.199 Neoliberalism this is an updated version of
classical liberalism. Its central pillars are the
free market and the self-reliant individual
188.8.131.52 Neoconservatism, this is a form of authoritarian
conservatism that calls for a restoration of
order, authority and discipline in society
4.2 The central themes of
"economic Thatcherism" were:
4.2.1 Reduced union power
184.108.40.206 The "problem" of the unions power was tackled by a series of laws
that restricted the ability of unions to take industrial action. such
measures both created a more flexible labour market and led to
the growth of Low-wage and low-skill economy in many sectors
220.127.116.11 Privatization. The "mixed economy" was transformed by the privatization of
most of the industries that had been nationalized during the 20th century;
examples included telecommunication, gas electricity, water, steel, buses
and railways. the state lost control of major UK industries state"
4.2.3 Low taxes
18.104.22.168 It brought about a significant shift in the tax burden
from direct taxes to indirect taxes. This substantially
reduced the progressive nature of the UK tax
system and, in the progcess, widned inequality
22.214.171.124 The Thatcher government removed a wide range of restrictions and controls
on the economy. Controls on exchange rates wer ended, allowing the pound
to "float" ; financial markets were deregulated; and subsidies and supports
that had propped up "failing industries were scaled down or scrapped
4.3 The central themes of
"social Thatcherism" were:
4.3.1 "Tough" law and order
126.96.36.199 Greater emphasis was placed on maintaining public order through a
fear of punishment, reflected in the belied that "prison works".
Custodial sentences were more widly used, prison terms were
lengthened and, in some cases, "tougher" prison regimes were imosed
4.3.2 Traditional values
188.8.131.52 One of the enemies of social thatcherism was the
spread of liberal or permissive values, associated
in particular with the 1960s. Instead, tradtional,
"Christian" or "family" values were defended.
4.3.3 National patriotism
184.108.40.206 Thatcherites placed a particular stress on strengthening
national identity, seen as one of the cornerstones of
political strength and social stability. Over time, this came
increasingly to be expressed in the form of euroscepticism