Blueprint of Life

madi.stewardson
Mind Map by madi.stewardson, updated more than 1 year ago
madi.stewardson
Created by madi.stewardson over 5 years ago
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Description

Mind Map on Blueprint of Life, created by madi.stewardson on 03/28/2016.

Resource summary

Blueprint of Life
  1. impact on evolution due to changes
    1. physical
      1. natural selection choses what is correct for a environemnt

        Annotations:

        • eg. when Austrllia drifted north and became hotter the eucalypt became prminant because of its ability to resprout quickly after a fire
      2. chemical
        1. through natural selection and population can develop resistance

          Annotations:

          • mosquitos and DDT- in 1940's DDT was used as a pesticide in faring and preventing deiseases, eventuallty it was discontinues as studies showed mosquitos had developed a resistance to it and it was also a human carcinogen  
        2. competition
          1. 'survival of the fittest'

            Annotations:

            • Dingo > hunting competition vs Tas. Tiger's > Extinction
        3. evidence for evolution
          1. Palaeontology(fossils) and transitional forms

            Annotations:

            • Archaeopteryx; transitional form between reptiles to bird found over 150 million years old
            1. biogeography- geographical distrubution

              Annotations:

              • emu, ostrish, rhea, kiwi
              1. comparative anatomy

                Annotations:

                • sharks and dolphins proving different organisms can evolve into similar 
                1. comparative embryology
                2. divergent - same to different -finches on galopgas
                  1. convergent -different to same -sharks and dolphins
                    1. The peppered moth -tree changed colour -moths changed colour -adaptive advantage
                      1. modern evidence
                        1. forelimbs
                          1. biochemical analysis

                            Annotations:

                            • before - gorillas human closest relative after DNA testing- chimps are
                            1. DNA Hybridisation
                            2. Greogor mendel (1822-1884)
                              1. how characteristics were passed down in pea plants
                                1. procedure -create pure breed tall and short -breed them to created 100% hybrid -breed them to create 1:2:1 ratio -REPEATED
                                  1. Conclusions- characteristics controlled by factors -factors separate when gametes are formed -gametes unite, ratios are predictable dominant can mask recessive
                                  2. gene- section of DNA that controls charateristic
                                    1. alleles- different forms of a gene
                                      1. DNA structure
                                        1. DNA wound around histone
                                          1. nucleotides
                                            1. sugar phosphate and base pair
                                            2. 3 bases-codon
                                            3. Meiosis
                                              1. result- 4 genetically different hapliod cells
                                              2. ensuring diversity
                                                1. crossing over of genetic material -metaphase
                                                  1. random segregation -how they line up in middle
                                                  2. DNA replication
                                                    1. unwinds -unzips -nucleotides attach to corresponding base
                                                    2. production of polypeptides
                                                      1. Transcription- base sequence transcribes onto mRNA, then taken to ribosome
                                                        1. Translation- tRNA then carries specific amino acid to mRNA attached to ribosome and releases it onto chain
                                                        2. amino acid<polypeptide<protein
                                                          1. mutation -radiation
                                                            1. 20's worker in watch factory licking radium, dies 20's and 30's
                                                              1. 1945-Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors
                                                                1. chernobyl - nuclear reactor exploded
                                                                  1. 1896 W. Grubbe discovered it shrinks tumours
                                                                  2. Beadle and Tatum
                                                                    1. created mutated strains of mould on bread, mutated didnt create an enzyme
                                                                      1. concluded one gene for one enzyme -later one gene one polypeptide
                                                                    2. mutagen
                                                                      1. causes mutation
                                                                      2. Sutton and Boveri
                                                                        1. Boveri -sea urchins

                                                                          Annotations:

                                                                          • importance of chromosome in maitenance of health
                                                                          1. Sutton -grasshopers

                                                                            Annotations:

                                                                            • chromosome carried factors each chromosome contains many factors
                                                                          2. Morgan -fruit flies -genes can be linked to the x chromosome
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