General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (201-300)- 3rd Year- PMU

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General Pathoanatomy Final MCQs (201-300)- 3rd Year- PMU

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Question 1

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for anemic infarction.
Answer
  • the term is synonym of white infarction
  • the term is synonym of red infarction
  • it develops as a result of absolute ischemia after total obstruction of an "end-type artery"
  • it mainly affects the lungs and liver

Question 2

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for hemorrhagic infarction.
Answer
  • it develops in organs with double circulation
  • it mainly affects the brain and the heart
  • it affects organs which have contact with the outside environment
  • it may affect the small intestine

Question 3

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for gangrene.
Answer
  • it is ischemic necrosis which develops in organs with contact with the external environment
  • it can be wet or dry
  • the dry gangrene is accompanied by severe bacterial infection
  • it can develop on the extremities, intestines, spleen and kidney

Question 4

Question
Which of the following terms are used to describe liquefactive necrosis of the brain?
Answer
  • ramolicio cerebri
  • encephalomalacia
  • infarctus anemicus cerebri
  • hydrocephalus

Question 5

Question
Which of the followings are not affected by gangrene?
Answer
  • lower limb
  • liver
  • lung
  • intestines

Question 6

Question
What type of necrosis develops in the spleen?
Answer
  • liquefactive necrosis
  • caseous necrosis
  • coagulative necrosis
  • fibrinoid necrosis

Question 7

Question
What type of necrosis develops in the brain?
Answer
  • caseous necrosis
  • coagulative necrosis
  • steatonecrosis
  • liquefactive necrosis

Question 8

Question
What type of necrosis develops in the pancreas?
Answer
  • steatonecrosis/fat necrosis
  • coagulative necrosis
  • liquefactive necrosis
  • caseous necrosis

Question 9

Question
What type of necrosis develops in the specific granuloma in tuberculosis?
Answer
  • liquefactive necrosis
  • coagulative necrosis
  • caseous necrosis
  • steatonecrosis

Question 10

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for coagulative necrosis.
Answer
  • it develops in organs composed mainly of proteins and containing less water and enzymes
  • "shadows" of previous structures can be seen microscopically
  • it develops as a result of acute pancreatitis
  • there is total effacement of the previous structures microscopically

Question 11

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for liquefactive necrosis.
Answer
  • it develops in organs composed mainly of proteins and containing less water and enzymes
  • it develops in organs which have less proteins but more water and enzymes
  • it can be seen in the spleen, kidneys, heart
  • it is most commonly seen in the brain

Question 12

Question
In which type of necrosis deposition of sodium, calcium and potassium salts (soaps) can be seen in the cytoplasm of the affected cells?
Answer
  • fibrinoid necrosis
  • coagulative necrosis
  • steatonecrosis
  • liquefactive necrosis

Question 13

Question
What is decubitus/bed sore?
Answer
  • clinicoanatomical form of necrosis
  • it develops in bed-ridden patients because of the damaged circulation caused by long-term pressure
  • it develops most commonly at the sacro-lumbar region and on the heels d) it develops usually on the abdomen, chest and knees
  • it develops ususally on the abdomen, chest and knees

Question 14

Question
Indicate the correct type of cells according to their capacity of proliferation.
Answer
  • cardiomyocites and striated muscle cells are labile cells
  • hepatocytes are permanent cells
  • the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract are labile cells
  • the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract are stable cells

Question 15

Question
What is pseudo-hypertrophy?
Answer
  • when there is hypertrophy of the parenchymal cells but the organ looks smaller in size
  • when the organ looks bigger in size but there is only hypertrophy of the stromal elements
  • when the organ is normal in size but there is hypertrophy of the parenchymal cells
  • when the organ is normal in size but there is atrophy of the parenchymal cells

Question 16

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for metaplasia.
Answer
  • it has two subtypes — prosoplasia and anaplasia
  • it can be direct and indirect
  • it is the transformation of one differentiated tissue into another related tissue type
  • it is the transformation of on tissue into cancerous tissue

Question 17

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for dyspasia.
Answer
  • it is a process of disordered cellular development
  • it can develop in soft tissues
  • it can develop in tissues of epithelial origin
  • it is an adaptive process

Question 18

Question
Which of the following tissues can undergo hypertrophy?
Answer
  • heart muscle
  • brain membranes
  • striated muscles
  • endothelium of big vessels

Question 19

Question
Which of the following tissues can undergo hyperplasia?
Answer
  • glandular mucosa of the uterus
  • glandular structures of the prostate
  • red bone marrow
  • smooth muscle cells of the uterus

Question 20

Question
Corpora amylacea can be seen microscopically in?
Answer
  • the glands of uterine mucosa
  • the glands of prostate
  • the kidney's convoluted tubules
  • the follicles of thyroid gland

Question 21

Question
How does the hypertrophic myocardium look like grossly?
Answer
  • enlarged in size
  • smaller in size
  • papillary muscles are hypertrophic
  • increased heart weight

Question 22

Question
Hyperplasia of the endometrium can be:
Answer
  • direct and indirect
  • typical and atypical
  • with formation of cysts or with formation of pseudo-cysts
  • diffuse and localized

Question 23

Question
What are the complications of prostate hyperplasia?
Answer
  • urinary retention, frequent urinary tract infections
  • sexual dysfunction
  • transitional cell carcinoma
  • hydronephrosis

Question 24

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s) for brown atrophy of the liver.
Answer
  • it can happen because of aging
  • it can happen because of infection diseases or starvation
  • it can happen because of chronic right sided heart failure
  • it can be result of Budd-Chiari syndrome

Question 25

Question
Which is the pigment of aging?
Answer
  • bilirubin
  • hemosiderin
  • lipofuscin
  • hematoidin

Question 26

Question
Which is the main complication after squamous metaplasia of the respiratory bronchial epithelium?
Answer
  • squamous carcinoma of the bronchus
  • chronic bronchitis
  • small-cell carcinoma
  • adenocarcinoma of the bronchus

Question 27

Question
Post-ischemic, post-compressive, collateral and angioneurotic are types of:
Answer
  • chronic systemic venous congestion
  • acute venous congestion
  • arterial hyperemia
  • non of the above

Question 28

Question
Which is the term used for edematous fluid?
Answer
  • exudate
  • transudate
  • haemorrhage
  • cyst

Question 29

Question
Which are the main characteristics of the transudate?
Answer
  • specific gravity is less than 1016
  • specific gravity is more than 1016
  • protein content is less than 3%
  • protein content is more than 3%

Question 30

Question
Epistaxis and melena are examples for:
Answer
  • edema
  • exudate
  • haemorrhages
  • venous congestion

Question 31

Question
What is hemascos?
Answer
  • blood in the urine
  • blood in the peritoneal cavity
  • blood in the excrement
  • blood vomiting

Question 32

Question
What is hematemesis?
Answer
  • blood vomiting
  • blood in the excrements
  • nose bleeding
  • bleeding from the lungs

Question 33

Question
What is hemoptoe
Answer
  • bleeding from the nose
  • bleeding from the lungs
  • blood vomiting
  • blood in the pleural cavity

Question 34

Question
Which are the causes for liver cyanosis?
Answer
  • shock
  • chronic right sided heart failure
  • acute right sided heart failure
  • thrombosis of the hepatic veins

Question 35

Question
Which are the causes for nutmeg liver?
Answer
  • acute right sided heart failure
  • chronic left and right sided heart failure
  • chronic left sided heart failure
  • chronic right sided heart failure

Question 36

Question
Which of the following organ changes might be of straight or reverse type?
Answer
  • nutmeg liver
  • cyanosis of the liver
  • cyanosis of the kidneys
  • brown induration of the lungs

Question 37

Question
Which of the following liver changes is reversible?
Answer
  • liver cirrhosis
  • liver cyanosis
  • nutmeg liver
  • liver amyloidosis

Question 38

Question
Pin-point hemorrhages in the brain have usually the following pathogenesis:
Answer
  • per diapedesin
  • per rhexin
  • per diabrosin
  • all of the above

Question 39

Question
Can thrombosis develop after death?
Answer
  • yes, this is why we can see blood clots in the vessels after death
  • no, thrombosis is a pathological process which develops only during lifetime
  • it can develop both during life and after death
  • It develops in the agony preceding death

Question 40

Question
What is characteristic for the thrombus?
Answer
  • dry, crumbly, layered structure
  • moist, homogenous strucure
  • attached to the vessel's wall
  • unattached to the vessel's wall

Question 41

Question
What is characteristic for the post-mortem blood clot?
Answer
  • dry, crumbly, layered structure
  • moist, homogenous structure
  • attached to the vessel's wall
  • unattached to the vessel's wall

Question 42

Question
Indicate types of embolism depending on the content of embolus.
Answer
  • gas, air, amniotic
  • thromboembolism, fat embolism
  • arterial, venous
  • orthograde, retrograde, paradoxal

Question 43

Question
Indicate types of embolism according to the way of blood flow.
Answer
  • gas, air, thromboembolism, amniotic, fat, parasite
  • orthograde, retrograde
  • arterial, venous
  • paradoxical

Question 44

Question
Indicate types of embolism according to the character of the obturated blood vessel
Answer
  • thromboembolism, amniotic, fat, gas, air embolism
  • arterial
  • venous
  • orthograde, retrograde, paradoxical

Question 45

Question
Is it possible to prevent embolism?
Answer
  • no, it is something we cannot control or prevent
  • yes, by using anticoagulants
  • yes, by exercise in bed ridden patient and early getting up from bed after operation
  • yes, by staying in bed without moving after operation

Question 46

Question
In which organ hemorrhagic infarction can develop?
Answer
  • in organs with nutritive and functional blood circulation
  • in organs with nutritive circulation only
  • in organs with many anastomoses
  • hemorrhagic infarction can develop in any organ

Question 47

Question
Indicate the organ(s) where hemorrhagic infarction is possible.
Answer
  • liver
  • heart
  • lung
  • intestine

Question 48

Question
How can we prove amniotic embolism?
Answer
  • microscopically, by finding amniotic fluid in the left heart ventricle
  • grossly, by finding amniotic fluid in the right heart ventricle
  • microscopically, by finding amniotic particles such as lanugo, meconium etc. in the lungs
  • grossly, by finding amniotic particles in the lungs

Question 49

Question
Why does gas embolism develop?
Answer
  • because of the dissolution of blood gases, especially azotic oxide, caused by fast decompression
  • because of the dissolution of bood gases, especially type, caused by fast compression
  • because the negative pressure of the opened blood vessels on the neck and head can lead to air entry
  • because the positive pressure of the opened blood vessels on the neck and head can lead to air entry

Question 50

Question
What is needed for the development of hemorrhagic infarction the lung?
Answer
  • double circulation of the lung
  • thrombosis of a branch of a. broncialis
  • thrombosis of a branch of a. pulmonalis
  • chronic venous stagnation

Question 51

Question
What is the most common cause for the development of anemic infarction of the brain?
Answer
  • thrombosis or embolism of a. cerebri anterior
  • thrombosis or embolism of a. cerebri media
  • thrombosis or embolism of a. cerebri posterior
  • thrombosis or embolism of a. basillaris

Question 52

Question
What is the gross appearance of a previous anemic infarction of the brain?
Answer
  • fresh liquefactive necrosis
  • brain cyst
  • brain pseudocyst
  • irregular red-coloured area

Question 53

Question
In which cases inflammation is injuring the tissues instead of protecting them?
Answer
  • in autoimmune diseases
  • in neoplastic diseases
  • in immunodeficiency diseases
  • in congenital anomalies

Question 54

Question
Indicate the correct statements
Answer
  • gangrene of the appendix and gangrenous appendicitis are synonyms of one same disease
  • severe inflammation in gangrenous appendicitis leads to necrosis, while in gangrene of the appendix the necrosis is ischemic
  • gangrene of the appendix means necrosis of the appendix while gangrenous appendicitis means severe purulent inflammation of the appendix without necrosis
  • inflammation in gangrenous appendicitis is a primary process, while in gangrene the inflammation is secondary after the necrosis

Question 55

Question
What is catarrhal inflammation?
Answer
  • type of acute inflammation
  • subtype of serous inflammation in the respiratory tract
  • subtype of fibrinous inflammation in the respiratory tract
  • subtype of serous inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract

Question 56

Question
What is putrefactive inflammation?
Answer
  • synonym of gangrenous inflammation
  • type of acute inflammation
  • type of chronic inflammation
  • subtype of purulent inflammation

Question 57

Question
Which are the subtypes of fibrinous inflammation?
Answer
  • phegmona
  • hemorrhagic
  • superficial (crouposa)
  • deep (diphtheria)

Question 58

Question
Which are the subtypes of purulent inflammation?
Answer
  • limited, called abscess
  • limited, called phegmona
  • diffuse called abscess
  • diffuse called phlegmona

Question 59

Question
Hemorrhagic, purulent, fibrinous, gangrenous, serous are types of:
Answer
  • acute inflammation
  • chronic inflammation

Question 60

Question
Indicate type(s) of acute inflammation.
Answer
  • polyp
  • specific granuloma and non specific granuloma
  • purulent, serous, fibrinous
  • productive

Question 61

Question
The gross appearance "Ribbon-like fibrin deposits on the pericardium" describes:
Answer
  • chronic pericarditis
  • fibrinous myocarditis
  • fibrinous pericarditis
  • acute pericarditis

Question 62

Question
Which are the cells that infiltrate the whole thickness of the appendix in phlegmonous appendicitis?
Answer
  • lymphocytes and plasma cells
  • basophiles
  • neutrophils
  • giant multinucleated cells

Question 63

Question
What is typical for purulent lepto-meningitis?
Answer
  • hyperemic vessels, infiltration of the soft brain membranes by lymphocytes
  • hyperemic vessels, infiltration of the soft brain membranes by neutrophils
  • yellow-green exudate seen usually on the convex side of the brain
  • clear cerebro-spinal fluid

Question 64

Question
Which are the cells of acute inflammation?
Answer
  • giant cells
  • macrophages
  • lymphocytes
  • neutrophils

Question 65

Question
Which are the systemic signs of inflammation?
Answer
  • leukocytosis
  • fever
  • rubor, dolor, calor
  • tumor, funcio laesa

Question 66

Question
Which are the local signs of acute inflammation?
Answer
  • calor, tumor, rubor
  • fever
  • dolor, funcio laesa
  • shock

Question 67

Question
Which cells are the first line of defense in acute inflammation?
Answer
  • lymphocytes
  • macrophages
  • neutrophils
  • monocytes

Question 68

Question
Which are the main histological signs for chronic inflammatory process?
Answer
  • presence of exudate
  • lack of exudate
  • abundance of cells — lymphocytes, plasma cells, epitheloid cells, giant cells, fibroblasts
  • abundance of cells —neutrophils

Question 69

Question
Granulation tissue develops:
Answer
  • after necrosis
  • because of chronic inflammation
  • because of catarrhal inflammaton
  • in relation to wound-healing

Question 70

Question
Indicate the correct answer.
Answer
  • Lipo-granuloma and oleo-granuoma are examples of foreign body granulomas
  • Lipogranuloma and oleograuloma are examples of specific granulomas
  • Oleogranuloma means granuloma against exogenous lipids, while lipogranuloma means granuloma against endogenous lipids
  • Oleogranuloma means granuloma against endogenus Ipids while lipogranuloma means granuloma against exogenous lipids

Question 71

Question
Indicate the correct statement(s).
Answer
  • the acute abscess doesn't have its own membrane
  • the chronic abscess has specific membrane called pyogenic
  • both acute and chronic abscess have pyogenic membranes
  • pyogenic membrane is typical only for acute abscess

Question 72

Question
Which of the following is not microscopic characteristic of granulation tissue?
Answer
  • abundance of capillaries with plump endothelial cells
  • abundance of strong fibrin fibers
  • abundance of lymphocytes, plasma cells, macrophages, fibroblasts
  • abundance of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophiles

Question 73

Question
Indicate the types of chronic inflammation
Answer
  • diffuse (interstitial)
  • fibrinous
  • polypoid
  • granulomatous

Question 74

Question
What is the outcome of granulation tissue?
Answer
  • necrosis
  • scar
  • tumor
  • abscess

Question 75

Question
What is a nasal polyp?
Answer
  • chronic inflammation of the nasal mucosa
  • acute inflammation of the nasal mucosa
  • it is usually related to allergy
  • it is a benign tumor developing in the nose

Question 76

Question
The giant cells type "foreign body" are derived from:
Answer
  • lymphocytes
  • neutrophiles
  • macrophages
  • epitheloid cells

Question 77

Question
Which of the following cannot cause foreign body granuloma?
Answer
  • surgical threads
  • parasites
  • fungi
  • lipids

Question 78

Question
Hydatid cysts affect most commonly:
Answer
  • the brain
  • the heart
  • the spleen
  • the liver

Question 79

Question
Which is the second most commonly affected organ by hydatid cysts?
Answer
  • brain
  • liver
  • lung
  • kidney

Question 80

Question
The following description indicates: Focal aggregates in the form of nodules of cells with phagocytic ability. The diameter of these nodules is no more than 1-2mm, in many cases they are seen only microscopically.
Answer
  • granulomas
  • metastases
  • polyps
  • granulation tissue

Question 81

Question
Which are the main signs of granulomatous inflammation?
Answer
  • formation of specific exudate and granulation tissue
  • diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and pasma cells
  • formation of specific or non-specific granulomas
  • formation of polyps

Question 82

Question
Which are the factors that lead to formation of granulomas?
Answer
  • difficulties in phagocytosis of the pathological agent
  • the immune reaction of the organism
  • specific structures of the pathological agents
  • all of the listed above

Question 83

Question
What does the term 'specific inflammation' mean?
Answer
  • type of granulomatous inflammation which characterizes with specific arrangement of the chronic inflammatory cells, pathognomonic for a particular etiologic agent
  • type of granulomatous inflammation with disordered arrangement of the inflammatory cells
  • diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells
  • type of granulomatous inflammation which characterizes with specific arrangement of the acute inflammatory cells, pathognomonic for a particular etiologic agent

Question 84

Question
What type of productive inflammation develops around parasites?
Answer
  • specific granulomatous inflammation
  • non-specific granulomatous inflammation
  • polypoid inflammation
  • diffuse inflammation

Question 85

Question
What type of necrosis develops in the tuberculous granuloma?
Answer
  • caseous necrosis
  • liquefactive necrosis
  • coagulative necrosis
  • fibrinoid necrosis

Question 86

Question
Which of the following cells are seen in tuberculomas?
Answer
  • Giant cells type Langhans
  • Epitheloid cells
  • Tuton giant cells
  • Lymphocytes

Question 87

Question
The giant cells type Langhans are derived from:
Answer
  • macrophages
  • epitheloid cells
  • lymphocytes
  • monocytes

Question 88

Question
Which giant cells have specific peripheral arrangement of the nuclei like horse-shoe
Answer
  • Tuton giant cells
  • Foreign body giant cells
  • Langhans giant cells
  • none of the above

Question 89

Question
In which stage of syphilis do the specific luetic granulomas develop?
Answer
  • first
  • second
  • third
  • they develop in all stages

Question 90

Question
What type of necrosis develops in luetic granulomas?
Answer
  • clay-like
  • caseous
  • liquefactive
  • coagulative

Question 91

Question
What type of necrosis develops in the cat-scratch disease?
Answer
  • caseous
  • coagulative
  • liquefactive
  • gummous

Question 92

Question
Mark the correct answer(s) about actinomycosis.
Answer
  • has three stages of development
  • has cervical, abdominal and thoracic forms
  • grossly, granular substance might be seen in the pus
  • grossly, rubbery lesions with central necrosis are seen in the affected organs

Question 93

Question
Mark the correct diagnosis according to the following microscopic description of a granuloma. Lack of necrosis, abundance of epitheloid cell, Langhans cells, collagen fibres, Shaumann bodies.
Answer
  • tuberculosis
  • sarcoidosis
  • rheumatism
  • syphilis

Question 94

Question
Mark the correct diagnosis according to the following microscopic description of a grauloma: Gummous necrosis, surrounded by epitheloid cells, single Langhans cells, abundance of plasma cells, less lymphocytes, fibroblasts.
Answer
  • tuberculosis
  • sarcoidosis
  • rheumatism
  • syphilis

Question 95

Question
The sulfur granule is characteristic for:
Answer
  • tuberculosis
  • felinosis
  • actinomycosis
  • leprosy

Question 96

Question
Mark the correct diagnosis according to the following microscopic description Of a granuloma. Fibrinoid necrosis, surrouned by abundant lymphocytes, plasma cells, many cells of Anichkov and pathognomonic cells of Aschoff.
Answer
  • tuberculosis
  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • syphilis
  • rheumatism

Question 97

Question
What changes can be seen in the immune organs in immune deficiency?
Answer
  • hyperplasia
  • hypoplasia
  • atrophy
  • hypertrophy

Question 98

Question
What histological changes could be seen in thyroid in Hashimoto thyroiditis.
Answer
  • unchanged
  • infiltration of lymphocytes and plasma cells
  • fibrosis
  • formation of lymph follicles

Question 99

Question
The histological changes in Hashimoto thyroiditis affect:
Answer
  • entire thyroid gland
  • markedly focal

Question 100

Question
The thyroid follicles in Hashimoto thyroiditis are:
Answer
  • unchanged
  • dilated
  • polymorphous
  • smaller