Chapter 5: International and Other Factors

francesca graham
Mind Map by francesca graham, updated more than 1 year ago
francesca graham
Created by francesca graham over 5 years ago


GCSE PE Mind Map on Chapter 5: International and Other Factors, created by francesca graham on 04/09/2016.

Resource summary

Chapter 5: International and Other Factors
  1. The Media
    1. The media is an extremely important means of communication and consists of the following areas in relation to sport:
      1. Television
        1. This includes satellite an cable TV, pay-per-view channels, and interactive TV
          1. Digital terrestrial TV channels are BBC, ITV, Channel 4, and Channel 5
            1. Satellite are digital broadcasters include Sky, Virgin Media, Eurosport and BT Sport, all of which are available on a monthly subscription
              1. They also offer 'catch-up' options and 'Sky Go' allows the subscriber to watch television on mobile devices such as tablets, laptops and phones
              2. There are different types of output, such as live coverage, highlights programmes and quiz programmes. Educational programmes such as coaching series and documentaries help with skill development in different activities and improve knowledge about sport. Some football clubs such as Manchester United and Chelsea have their own TV channel
              3. The Internet
                1. All forms of media can now be accessed via the internet, which is now the fastest-growing area of the media. Search engines allow information about any aspect of sport to be accessed immediately. Many sports have their own websites with up-to-date information about every aspect of the sport. Live events are easily accessible through the different broadcasts, particularly with the increase in the use of mobile devices. Social networks such a Facebook and Twitter allow information to be shared about all aspects of sport between participants and spectators
                2. Radio
                  1. Talksport is a radio station devoted to covering sport with love commentaries and discussion programmes. Radio 5Live also covers live sporting events. Digital radio programmes can be accessed through satellite TV and mobile devices
                  2. The Press
                    1. The press consists of newspapers, magazines and books. Newspapers often contain sports supplements and in many cases can be accessed through mobile devices and laptops
                  3. Advantages of media coverage
                    1. Brings in considerable revenue for sport
                      1. Can help to increase knowledge about sport and therefore encourage participation
                        1. Slow motion replays allow the viewers to gain a greater understanding of different aspects of a performance
                        2. Provides up-to-date information about sport
                          1. Variety of coverage to give lots of choice of activities
                            1. Expert analysis by ex-performers to give better understanding of tactics
                              1. Increase popularity of a sport, e.g. darts
                                1. Showing of lower-profile sports such as netball and badminton may increase participation
                              2. Negatives of media coverage
                                1. Televised coverage of events may have a negative effect on attendance, particularly as watching at home or in a social setting may be a far cheaper option
                                  1. This may have an impact on the revenue received by clubs
                                  2. Some sports receive considerably more coverage than others, e.g. football
                                    1. Directors can influence how sport is seen on television so viewers see what the director thinks is appropriate, particularly in highlights programmes
                                      1. Changed timings of event, e.g. Monday and Tuesday night football to fit in with Sky TV scheduling
                                        1. Officials undermined with slow-motion replays
                                        2. How this relates to Lucy
                                          1. Athletic meetings are often shown live on terrestrial television so Lucy will have the opportunity to watch top-class athletes performing, and this may help to inspire her to achieve her goal of becoming the national 800 m champion. She should certainly have been inspired by the London 2012 Olympics where Great Britain enjoyed considerable success in terms of medals won. Lucy would have been able to see Jessica Ennis winning the goad medal in the heptathlon, the final event of which is the 800 m, and Lucy may set her sights on winning a goal medal herself, perhaps in the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo
                                            1. John could use the local newspaper to advertise Murton Athletics Club in a bid to encourage athletes to join, and to recruit volunteers to help run the club. He could also maybe use the local radio for the same purpose
                                              1. Lucy could use Facebook and Twitter to maintain a high profile and keep people informed about her progress. This may also help her in a bid to attract sponsorship as people and businesses are made aware of her achievements
                                                1. The UK Athletics website gives a huge range of information about various aspects of athletics. Lucy will be able to see personal best times of her competitors and watch them perform via YouTube clips
                                              2. Sponsorship
                                                1. Sponsorship is involved in sport in the following ways
                                                  1. Individuals
                                                    1. Jessica Ennis-Hill is sponsored by various companies, including Adidas, Omega and Santander
                                                    2. Teams
                                                      1. Adidas sponsored the Great Britain team at the London Olympics
                                                      2. Sports
                                                        1. Sainsbury's are involved in sponsoring athletics, Emirates sponsor the FA Cup
                                                        2. Events
                                                          1. Virgin sponsors the London Marathon
                                                        3. Sponsorship can take many forms
                                                          1. Equipment
                                                            1. Clothing
                                                              1. Transport and travel
                                                                1. Training facilities
                                                                  1. Entry fees and expenses
                                                                    1. Money
                                                                    2. There are advantages and disadvantages of sponsorship to the performer, sport and sponsor
                                                                      1. Advantages
                                                                        1. Competitions can take place because of sponsorship
                                                                          1. The RBS Six Nations (rugby)
                                                                          2. Sports can be promoted, raising profile and increasing participation
                                                                            1. Sainsbury's and athletics
                                                                            2. Performers can take place in sport and not have to worry about money
                                                                              1. Sponsors can get increased revenue as a result of extra advertising and improve the image of the company
                                                                              2. Disadvantages
                                                                                1. Sponsors may dictate times and dates of competitions
                                                                                  1. Sky Sports and Monday and Tuesday night football
                                                                                  2. Negative publicity about a performer or sport may affect sponsor's income and they may withdraw their support
                                                                                    1. Negative publicity about a company may, in tern, reflect on the performer
                                                                                    2. Minority sports might not be able to attract sponsorship
                                                                                      1. Sponsors may insist on promotion work which may interfere with training
                                                                                        1. They may also insist on certain clothing and equipment, which may not be suitable for the performer
                                                                                    3. Unacceptable sponsorship
                                                                                      1. Tobacco sponsorship is banned in most sports because of the associated health risks
                                                                                        1. Alcohol sponsorship is allowed but is not considered desirable because of associated health problems
                                                                                          1. A number of betting firms are involved in sport sponsorship, which would encourage gambling
                                                                                            1. At least five Premiership football teams are sponsored by betting firms
                                                                                            2. Fast-food chain McDonald's were heavily involved in sponsorship on the London 2012 Olympics, which may not be seen to encourage healthy eating
                                                                                            3. How this relates to Lucy
                                                                                              1. As Lucy continues to compete at county and national level in athletics, she will become more reliant on sponsorship to help her pay for equipment, travel and training expenses, particularly as her parents are finding it costly to support her. She may find it difficult initially as she is an unknown athlete on a national scale and companies may be unwilling to commit themselves to sponsoring someone who is not well known. She mat be able to find a local business to support her, who glad of a goodwill and positive publicity this gesture may generate. As Lucy's coach, John may try to secure the correct type of sponsorship deal for her, an example of which could be a sportswear company who could provide top-quality clothing or footwear which may help improve Lucy's performance. An alcohol company would not be a suitable sponsor as this may be seen to encourage underage drinking, as Lucy is only 15 years old and therefore cannot legally buy alcohol
                                                                                            4. Competitions
                                                                                              1. There are different forms of competition that take place in sport, which include the following
                                                                                                1. Leagues
                                                                                                  1. Possible the most common, where the teams and competitors perform against each other and will usually be awarded points for winning
                                                                                                    1. Advantages
                                                                                                      1. Can involve a large number of teams and several leagues
                                                                                                        1. Everybody plays the same number of games
                                                                                                          1. Fixtures and can be arranged well in advance
                                                                                                          2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                            1. Can go on for a long time
                                                                                                              1. Bad weather may result in fixture congestion towards the end of the season
                                                                                                          3. Knockouts
                                                                                                            1. This involves teams or competitors performing against each other and then progressing to the next round. Cup competitions are based on that format
                                                                                                              1. Advantages
                                                                                                                1. Easy to organise
                                                                                                                  1. Can involve a large number of teams because of the elimination process
                                                                                                                  2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                    1. If you loose in the first round you don't get a lot of game play
                                                                                                                      1. Can be difficult if there is an uneven number of teams
                                                                                                                  3. Ladders
                                                                                                                    1. This is where there is a number of performers on a list and you can challenge someone above you to a game and the take their place if you win
                                                                                                                      1. Advantages
                                                                                                                        1. Easy to organise
                                                                                                                          1. Good for individual racket sports
                                                                                                                          2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                            1. Not really designed for a large number of competitors
                                                                                                                              1. Progress can be slow
                                                                                                                          3. Round Robins
                                                                                                                            1. Players or teams play against each other, possibly once
                                                                                                                              1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                1. Everyone plays a guaranteed number of games
                                                                                                                                2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                  1. Not really suitable for a large number of teams/players because of the number of games which need to be played
                                                                                                                              2. Combination Events
                                                                                                                                1. This involves combining some of the other forms of competitions. For example, the early stages of a competition may be played as a league with the winners progressing to a knockout format. This is used in the Champions League and the Europa League in football
                                                                                                                                  1. Advantages
                                                                                                                                    1. High number of teams involved
                                                                                                                                      1. Teams get more than one chance to qualify
                                                                                                                                      2. Disadvantages
                                                                                                                                        1. If a team has already qualified, there can be a game played where the outcome is meaningless
                                                                                                                                          1. Goes on for a long time
                                                                                                                                    2. How this relates to Lucy
                                                                                                                                      1. When Lucy was competing at county cross-country races, she could have been a member of a team competing against other teams, where points may be awarded for points and the winning team is then decided. If she competes as an individual, then the fastest time wins and as she is the champion, she would have recorded the fastest time. At the England Schools Championships, she will have represented the ounty where her school is based. Teams then earn points depending on the finishing position of their competitors with one team them becoming the overall winner, making a league competition. On her way to achieving third place in the 800 m, Lucy will have taken part in heats and a final, where competitors progress through or a knocked out, depending on their times
                                                                                                                                    3. International Sports and Events
                                                                                                                                      1. A number of sports hold world championships, including football, rugby, netball and cricket. These championships usually take place every 4 years. The World Athletics Championships take place every 2 years, with the 2017 championships taking place in London. Other sports such as tennis and golf stage international events or tournaments, usually every year - Wimbrldon and the Ryder cup being examples. The most famous international competition is the Olympic Games, held every 4 years
                                                                                                                                        1. Although staging international competitions can be an enormous financial benefit to the host nation, there are often negative issues as well
                                                                                                                                          1. Advantages to a country hosting competitions
                                                                                                                                            1. Rise the profile of the country
                                                                                                                                              1. Make a financial profit through sponsorship
                                                                                                                                                1. Improved facilities - can be used by the local population after the competitions have ended
                                                                                                                                                  1. Home nation competitors have home support and do not have to travel a long distance
                                                                                                                                                  2. Disadvantages to a country of hosting competitions include
                                                                                                                                                    1. Concerns about security with terrorist attacks
                                                                                                                                                      1. There are concerns about the football European Championships being held in Paris next yeah, following last year's terrorist attacks there
                                                                                                                                                      2. High costs
                                                                                                                                                        1. The preparation for the 2016 Rio Olympics has already seen demonstrations by local people who are annoyed about the high costs of building new facilities and staging the Games where there is so much poverty in Brazil.
                                                                                                                                                        2. Controversy surrounding the staging of competitions
                                                                                                                                                          1. There are already concerns about the 2022 Football World Cup being held in Qatar when players will be expected in temperatures of 40°C
                                                                                                                                                      3. How this relates to Lucy
                                                                                                                                                        1. Lucy is hoping to become the national 800 m champion in 2 years' time. If she achieves her goal, she may hope to be selected for the Great Britain team competing in the Tokyo 2020 Olympics or the World Championships in the USA in 2021. Competing in these events will ensure that Lucy gains the maximum amount of publicity, which would undoubtedly help in any attempt to secure lucrative sponsorship deals. It will also enable her to continue to improve her performance levels
                                                                                                                                                      4. Role Models
                                                                                                                                                        1. A role model is someone other people look up to and may aspire to be like. in sport he/she would be expected to be performing at a high level and set a good example by their behaviour, attitude and commitment to sport. This is particularly important with all the media coverage that sport stars receive which brings an added responsibility to behave in an appropriate manner
                                                                                                                                                          1. Positive role models may encourage young people to take up sport, play by the rules and show respect for others. High-profile spots such as football often have negative role models because of foul play, cheating and a general lack of respect towards officials often shown by footballers, and this may discourage people from taking part
                                                                                                                                                            1. Opinions vary about who are good role models in sport. Jessica Ennis-Hill is a popular athlete because of her success and the fact that her personality appeals to a lot of people. Andy Murray is generally considered to be a good role model, particularly after his efforts recently helped Great Britain secure a historic Davis Cup victory, and he was voted Sports Personality of the Year 2015
                                                                                                                                                              1. How this relates to Lucy
                                                                                                                                                                1. Jessica Ennis-Hill would be an excellent role model for Lucy. Not only is she a world champion, she has been involved as an ambassador for Sky Sports Living for Sport campaign, which involves her going into schools to talk to students to inspire and motivate them to take part in sport. She became world heptathlon champion at the World Athletics Championship last year after giving birth to her son. Her determination to succeed should be an inspiration to Lucy as she strives to become national champion
                                                                                                                                                              2. Health and Safety
                                                                                                                                                                1. There are several rules and guidelines that need to be followed when taking part in physical activity, and it will often be necessary to carry out a risk assessment at the start of an activity. The following should be considered
                                                                                                                                                                  1. Carry out a warm-up and appropriate training
                                                                                                                                                                    1. Remove jewellery
                                                                                                                                                                      1. Wear the correct clothing and footwear
                                                                                                                                                                        1. Wear safety equipment
                                                                                                                                                                          1. Make sure the playing/performing environment is safe to use
                                                                                                                                                                            1. Use the correct technique to perform a skill
                                                                                                                                                                              1. Lift and carry equipment correctly
                                                                                                                                                                                1. Bend the knees, keep the back straight and keep head up
                                                                                                                                                                                2. Play by the rules
                                                                                                                                                                                3. How this relates to Lucy
                                                                                                                                                                                  1. John will be responsible for the safety of Lucy and the other athletes at Murton Athletics Club. He will need to make sure Lucy carries out an effective warm-up before training sessions and competitions to reduce the risk of injury. He will need to make sure that Lucy is fit enough to compete in races and that she demonstrates the correct running technique so that she is not placing unnecessary stress on her body
                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Lucy will need to wear the appropriate clothing and footwear in training and competitions. Footwear is particularly important, and she would need trainers with extra cushioning and support to reduce stress on her feet when taking part in 5 km park runs. When she is competing in 800 m races, she is likely to be wearing running spikes, which which should be in good condition and not have loose or missing spikes, which may cause her to stumble and fall during a race. Lucy should not chew gum during a race as this may lead to choking. Long hair would also need to be tied back to avoid blocking her vision and colliding with other competitors
                                                                                                                                                                                      1. John has a responsibility for the safety og the athletes he coaches at Murton Athletics Club and he will need to carry out rick assessments before training session. We are told that the facilities at the local council track are deteriorating and the long-jump pits ate out of use. This may be because the run-up is damaged and so athletes may sprain an ankle in their approach to the pit. There may be insufficient sand in the pit and athletes may suffer broken bones if they land awkwardly. Training sessions have been cancelled because of wet weather, and John may have mad the decision to avoid athletes, including Lucy, slipping over on the wet surface which may be in poor condition anyway if it has not been looked after properly over the last 5 years
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. John will need to ensure that all the athletics equipment is used correctly and safety rules are followed. For example, javelins should be carried and retrieved with the point down and in all throwing events, athletes should not throw until told to do so by the coach, particularly when other athletes are in the area
                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Science and ICT in Sport
                                                                                                                                                                                        1. The use of technology in sport has improved many aspects of performance. Data can be stored in computers to help with analysis of performance. More advances facilities, equipment and materials have all helped to improve standards for sports performers
                                                                                                                                                                                          1. Equipment is often lighter and more durable., and had changes the performance levels in sports such as cycling, athletics and tennis. Landing areas using advanced foam equipment in safety pits are used in gymnastics training. Materials such as body suits are worn by sprinters ans cyclists and allow less resistance. improved lighter, hard-wearing footwear is designed for specific sports, such as running and football
                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Facilities have been developed with stadiums with retractable roofs, so matches can now take place when it is raining, for example on Center Court at Wimbledon. 3G and 4G pitches allow training and matches to take place during bed weather, and there are now a number of schools with these types if pitches which means lessons can still take place
                                                                                                                                                                                              1. Ther are also a number of ways that ICT has been used to help sport performers to improve their performance. The recording and analysis of an athlete's performance using up-to-date computer software is now widely available and enables a performer to receive instant feedback about their performance through the use of digital cameras, flip cams, tablets and smart phones
                                                                                                                                                                                                1. There are a number of apps which can be used in iPads and iPhones and can be used by coaches and performers to look at a performance. The Coach's Eye app allows video recording of a performance and instant slow-motion replay and feedback. Computer hardware packages include heart-rate and blood-pressure monitors, which performers can use during training to ensure they are working at an appropriate level. Up-to-date technology is not used during activities to help with decision making
                                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Hawk-Eye is used in tennis, football and cricket to track the flight of the ball. In tennis, it can tell whether a serve is in or not; in cricket it is used to confirm LBW decisions, and in football it is now used in goal-line technology in the Premier League
                                                                                                                                                                                                    1. Video officials in rugby help to make decisions about the awarding tries
                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Electronic timing is used in swimming and athletics to judge finishing positions and record times to one-hundredth of a second
                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. How this relates to Lucy
                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Lucy will need to make sure she has the best clothing and footwear to improve her performance. Is she uses running spikes for the 800 m, these are now very light to enable a quicker running speed. Her trainers for her 5 km park run will provide support for her feet and ankles and can contain an insole for extra shock absorption
                                                                                                                                                                                                          1. John will be able to use ICT to help Lucy improve her performance in training and races. He can record her during a race ans play it back to her so that both he and Lucy can analyse her performance and look at how to improve. This can be done using Coach's Eye app on a tablet or by using a digital camera and playing it back using a laptop. This could also be done using Lucy's mobile phone, so that so can refer to it at any time
                                                                                                                                                                                                            1. Athletics results from competitions are recorded on a database, and so John will have access to the times of competitors Lucy is likely to be facing in races, and will therefore know who her main rivals are likely to be and tactics that could be used to defeat them
                                                                                                                                                                                                              1. In training sessions, Lucy may use a heart-rate monitor so that John can make she is maintaining her heart rate in the correct training zone, to improve her aerobic capacity
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