Unit 6: Principles of Training and Training methods

Cath Warriner
Flashcards by Cath Warriner, updated more than 1 year ago
Cath Warriner
Created by Cath Warriner over 4 years ago
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AQA GCSE PE Facts Flashcards on Unit 6: Principles of Training and Training methods, created by Cath Warriner on 06/20/2015.
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Question Answer
What is the acronym for the Principles of Training? SPORT
What does the 'S' stand for in the principles of training? What is the definition? S = Specificity To work on the areas that you need to. Ensure training methods are suited to the sport you play.
What does the 'P' stand for in the principles of training? What is the definition? P = Progression Starting slowly and building up th training.
What does the 'O' stand for in the principles of training? What is the definition? O = Overload To train harder than you normally do.
What does the 'R' stand for in the principles of training? What is the definition? R = Reversibility If you stop training your fitness levels will drop, due to illness, injury, lack of facilities.
What does the 'T' stand for in the principles of training? What is the definition? T = Tedium Tedium means bored. It is essential to vary training to avoid becoming bored.
When applying the Principle of Overload what is the acronym? FITT FID
When applying overload what does the 'F' stand for and how would it be applied? F = Frequency Increasing the number of training sessions that you attend during a week.
When applying overload what does the 'I' stand for and how would it be applied? I = Intensity This can be applied by increasing the number of repetitions you perform, increasing the number of sets you perform, increasing the weight which you are lifting, add more work stations to the session.
When applying overload what does the 'T or D' stand for and how would it be applied? It relates to tIme or duration. This means to train for longer periods of time, increasing the length of the training session.
What is continuous training? Training which involves no rest periods.
What would be the length of a training session when involved with continuous training? The minimum length of a continuous training session would be 30 minutes and can last up to 2 hours. Specific lengths of the sessions will relate to the type of athlete training for a specific event.
What type of respiration is used in continuous training? Continuous training involves aerobic respiration. Glucose + Oxygen = Energy + CO2 + H20
When continuous training in the aerobic training zone what % of your maximum heart rate would you be training at? When continuous training you train at 60% - 80% of your MHR. This helps to improve cardio vascular and muscular endurance.
What type of athletes would choose to use continuous training? Athletes beginning training for the first time as it develops their stamina. Athletes returning from injury to rebuild their stamina. Games players during pre season training to improve their stamina. Long distance athletes.
What type of activities can be used when continuous training? Running, cycling, swimming or an aerobics dance class. In the gym using a treadmill, exercise bike, indoor rower or cross trainer.
What is altitude training? Aerobic training which is carried out over 2400 metres above sea level.
Why do athletes choose to go altitude training? To increase their oxygen carrying capacity. Some athletes use altitude training in order to acclimatise prior to a competition to be held at altitude.
How does the body respond to altitude training? It increases the number of red blood cells in the body to enable the athlete to have a better oxygen supply to the working muscles when competing at sea level. It improves their aerobic efficiency in long distance events.
What type of athletes would use altitude training? Long distance athletes, 10,000m runner, triathlon, biathlon and cyclists. Team players prior to a World Cup in order to acclimatise to the climatic conditions.
How would overload be applied to altitude training? Increase the number of training sessions completed within the week. Moving to a higher altitude. Increasing the length of the training session.
What is fartlek training? Fartlek is speed play, changing the speed of the run to alternate between aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
Which type of athletes would use fartlek training? Games players as they have to alternate between jogging, running, sprinting and walking.
What type of terrain would be used when fartlek training? Hills, forests, moorland and sand dunes.
How would you apply overload when fartlek training? Increase the number of runs you complete each week. Increase the number of climbs you include in your run. Increase the number of sprints and shorten the length of any walks. Increase the length of the training session.
How long would the minimum fartlek training session be? 20-30 minutes minimum. Most team players would try to replicate the length of their game. Netball 4 x 15 minutes = 4 quarters. Hockey 2 x 35 minutes = 2 halves. Rugby 2 x 40 minutes = 2 halves Football 2 x 45 minutes = 2 halves.
What is warm weather training? Most professional athletes go abroad during the winter months to train in a warmer climate. This is to avoid the wind, rain and snow and avoid training being cancelled. Athletes will hopefully avoid injury as muscles will be warmer and have greater elasticity.
Why do players in team sports sometimes complete warm weather training? To acclimatise to the hot temperatures so that their body can get used to the heat prior to an international event which will be played in a hot environment.
What is interval training Periods of work followed by periods of rest.
What are the two types of interval training? Short and long interval training.
Who would use short interval training? What type of respiration would be being used? Sprinters, hurdlers, long jumpers and triple jumpers use short interval training. Anaerobic respiration is being used.
What would be the length of each work period when involved in short interval training? What would be the length of the rest period? The length of each work period would be 0-15 seconds. The length of the rest period would be 2 to 3 minutes.
Who would use long interval training? What type of respiration would be being used? 800m and 1500m runners. Aerobic respiration is being used.
What would be the length of each work period when involved in long interval training? What would be the length of the rest period? Work periods last from 15 seconds to three minutes. The rest period matches the work period.
How would overload be applied to interval training? Use frequency and complete more sessions in the week. To apply intensity increase the length of the work period and reduce the length of the rest period. Increase the number of reps in each set and complete more sets. To apply time/duration increase the length of each training session.
A disadvantage of interval training is that it can become boring. Which of the principles of training does this relate to? The principle of Tedium.
What is the definition for repetitions? The number of times you actually perform the exercise/actually move a weight. e.g. 15 sit ups = 15 repetitions
What is the definition for sets? The number of times you actually repeat the exercise and return to the work station. e.g. 2 sets of 15 reps = 30 reps in total.
What is circuit training? What are the two different types of cicuit that can be used? Completing a series of exercises at work stations. You can participate in a fitness circuit or a skill circuit.
Hiow many stations are normally used in a circuit training session? 10 activity stations.
How is fatigue avoided when participating in a circuit training session? Alternate the muscle groups being used at each station so that lactic acid does not build up in the muscles.
Before completing a circuit training session a risk assessment must be performed. What considerations must be taken into account? Check all the equipment is safe and stable. No spills on the floor. Mats are secure and positioned correctly. Adequate space between stations. Use pre tests to plan your programme. Progression is applied by slowly increasing the reps/set/weights.
What are the advantages of circuit training? It can be set for individuals needs. Set own targets. Increase reps and sets as fitness increases. Can be competitive. Quick and easy to set up. Minimum equipment is needed. Cheap/inexpensive equipment used. Good use of limited space. Caters for alrge groups.
What are the disadvantages of circuit training? Not suitable for one person or a small group. Need a time keeper to run the circuit. Hard to develop a high enough level of skill or strength. Not possible to monitor everyone at once. Incorrect technique leads to safety concerns.
Which type of athletes would use circuit training? Games players during the pre season to develop aerobic and anaerobic respiration.
What is weight training? It involves lifting weight to increase muscular strength or muscular stamina.
How is muscular strength developed when weight training? Lifting heavy weights with few repetitions. This develops anaerobic fitness of the muscles.
What type of athletes need to develop anaerobic fitness of the muscles when using weight training? Weight lifters, sprinters, gymnasts, rugby players and field athletes involved in throwing.
How is muscular endurance developed when weight training? Use light weights but complete a high number of repetitions. This develops aerobic fitness of the muscles.
What type of athletes need to develop aerobic fitness of the muscles when using weight training? Cyclists Cross country runners Tri-athletes
When muscles increase in size it is called muscle hypertrophy. When injured muscles reduce in size, what is this known as? Muscle atrophy is muscle wastage.
When weight training you can use two different types of weights. What are they? Machine weights and free weights.
What are the advantages of using machine weights? Beginners find them easy to use. They are designed to move in the correct way so they are safer for beginners. They can be adjusted for different size of users. They have support belts to make sure the weights move smoothly.
What is the disadvantage of using machine weights? Extra weight cannot be added to the machines.
Advanced athletes would use free weights to increase their strength. Would they train alone? No When using free weights you must always use a spotter.
What are the advantages of using free weights? Provide a wide range of activities. Develop explosive strength. You can keeping adding additional weight.
What are the disadvantages of using free weights? Skill is needed to lift properly to avoid injury. Injury can occur from poor posture and stance. Need a spotter to avoid injury.
When training an athlete may experience plateuing. What is plateuing? Where progress seems to halt within a programme and it takes some time to move onto the next level.
A lot of athletes will use combination training. What is combination training? It means an athlete uses two or more training methods to improve their fitness. e.g. A sprinter will use short interval training and weight training to develop speed, power and explosive strength.
What is a professional athlete? An athlete who is paid to play, it is their job.
What is an amateur athlete? An amateur plays for fun and enjoyment they are not paid to play.
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