Sociological Theory

Mind Map by , created over 6 years ago

Sociology Mind Map on Sociological Theory, created by sugarcoatedlolli on 04/20/2013.

Created by sugarcoatedlolli over 6 years ago
AS Sociology - Functionalism and education
The Functionalist perspective on education
Phoebe Fletcher
AQA A-Level Sociology: Gender Differences in Education - Gender Gap in Achievement
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AQA A-Level Sociology: Gender Differences in Education - Internal Factors
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AQA A-Level Sociology: Gender Differences in Education - Gender and Subject Choice
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AQA A-Level Sociology: Gender Differences in Education - External Factors
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Sociological Theory
1 functionalism
1.1 integration of individuals
1.1.1 integrated into social system
1.1.2 PARSON mechanism socialisation social control
1.2 value consensus and social order
1.2.1 PARSON social order=shared cultures/central value system value consensus glue holds society together
1.3 society as a system
1.3.1 PARSON society=biological organism organic analogy 3 similiarties system fit together in a fixed way system needs basic needs must be met f its to survive functions economy helps maintain social system by meeting needs
1.4 part of the social system
1.4.1 PARSON society= building blocks individual actions governed by norms norms clustered= status-roles status-roles= institution related institution= sub-system sub-system= social system
1.5 system needs
1.5.1 PARSONS basic needs Adaptaion social system meets material needs Goal attainment society set goal&allocate resources to achieve Integration integrated to pursue shared goals Latency maintain society over time
1.6 types of society
1.6.1 PARSONS traditional students are ascribed immediate gratification modern deferred gratification students achieve own goals= individual
1.7 social change
1.7.1 PARSONS change is gradual evolutionary process occur through dynamic equilibrium
2 Marxism
2.1 Marx ideas
2.1.1 his theory 'scientific socialism'
2.1.2 Historical materialism materialism humans have to work to achieve materialism means of production social relations of production humans cooperate with each other to meet their needs led to division between classes mode of production forms economic base determines the superstructure education family mass media Politics religion
2.1.3 class society&exploitation no class/expolitation primitive communism class owns the means controls the surplus benefits class societies ancient exploitation of slaves feudal exploitation of serfs capitalist exploitation of free wage labourers
2.1.4 capitalism division of labour concentrated power competition creates concentration multinational companies low wage = immiseration Proletariat free sell labour difference in surplus unequal 2 warring camps tech=deskilled workers class polarisation
2.1.5 class consciousness cause w/c develop consciousness
2.1.6 idelology u/p control mental production foster false consciousness sustain class inequality
2.1.7 alienation loss of control over due to separation creates unskilled labourer
2.1.8 state,revolution&communism state protects class owners revolution= classless communist
2.1.9 critisims class simplistic view of inequality class polarisation not occurred economic determinism revolution not come true base-superstructure model criticised for economic dterminism
3 Feminist theories
3.1 liberal feminist
3.1.1 can achieve gender equality
3.1.2 cultural change
3.1.3 sex gender Enter text here
4 Action theories
4.1 WEBER social action
4.1.1 types of action instrumentally rational action actors calculate efficient way to achieve given goal value-rational action action towards a goal as desirable/own sake no way of calculating traditional action customary/habitual action 'we have always done it' affectual action expresses emotion important religious/political movements
4.1.2 two levels level of cause objective structural factors that shape people's behaviour the protestant reformation introduced new belief system level of meaning understanding subjective meanings work took on religious meaning
4.1.3 evaluation SCHUTZ too individualistic don't explain shared nature of meanings difficult to apply
4.2 symbolic interactionism
4.2.1 MEADE symbol vs instincts behaviour is not shaped by instinct meaning to things that are significant to us create and live in a world of meaning attach symbols to the world symbols have variety of meaning interpret meaning of things before we know how to respond to the stimulus taking the role of the other interpret other people's meaning by taking the role of other put ourselves into others shoes ability to develop through social interaction
4.2.2 BLUMER 3 principles meanings arise from interaction process actions are based on meaning we give to situation meanings we give to situation due to interpretive procedure used our action is partly predictable/ we internalise expectation from others
4.2.3 Labelling theory interactionist concept definition of situation THOMAS if we believe something is true/it will effect how we act looking glass self COOLEY self concept arises from ability to take role of others self-fulfilling prophecy occurs/we become what others see us as career mental patient labelled by psychiatrist hard to reintergrate into society criticism too deterministic
4.2.4 GOFFMAN'S dramaturgical model actors acting out scripts impression management control impression our preformane adjust performance to present a convincing image many techniques for impression language tone gesture different settings of interaction:we act differently in different things role gap between our real self and our roles we are not the roles we play role loosely scripted by society
4.2.5 criticism not all actions are meaningful cannot explain the consistent patterns we observe in behaviour ignores wider social structures
4.3 Phenomenology
4.3.1 SCHUTZ typification categories and concept used no unique to ourselves meaning given to experiences varies to social context stabilise & clarify when speaking the same language possible to communicate without shared typification= social order would be impossible shared typification knowledge that we use to make sense of experience members of society have shared' life world' Natural attitude society appears as a real/objective thing we assume the unknown and unseen individuals adopt to natural attitude assumes the social world is solid
4.3.2 HUSSERL world makes sense because we impose meaning & order knowledge about the world through mental acts of categorising meanings
4.3.3 criticism BERGER&LUCKMANN reject that society is merely an inter-subjective reality
4.4 Ethnomethodology
4.4.1 Garfinkel how is social order achieved rejects parsons reasons social order is an accomplishment construct using common sense
4.4.2 indexicality nothing has a fixed meaning threat to social order meaning is unclear Enter text here
4.4.3 reflexivity make us behave as if meaning are cleat&obvious use common sense knowledge/ interaction to construct sense of meaning stop indexicality
4.4.4 suicide and reflexivity coroners make sense by selecting facts impose order by seeking patterns patterns are social construct
4.4.5 criticism ignores wider structure of power and inequality affect meaning denies existence of wider society no reason to accept EM views identify that patterns and producing explanation are fiction
4.5 structure and action
4.5.1 GIDDENS: structuration theory duality of structure structure&action cannot exist without each other through actions produce and reproduce structures structures are what make actions reproduction of structure through agency 2 elements rules norms, laws that govern/affect action resources economic&power over other an reproduce/change through human actions obeying law reproduce structure inventing new technology criticism Craib isn't a theory doesn't explain what actually happens in society Fails to unite structure with action and apply it on a large scale language would not exist if no one used it change of structures through agency reflexively monitor our own action late modern society individuals become more reflexive actions might change the world calvinist << created capitalism
5 Globalisation, modernity&postmodernity
5.1 globalisation
5.1.1 technological changes echange info globally= risk society
5.1.2 economic greater interconnectedness becoming more weightless
5.1.3 political changes globalisation power of nation-state
5.1.4 change in culutre/identity harder for cultures to exist in insolation 'global culture'
5.2 modern society
5.2.1 nation state
5.2.2 capitalism economy modern societies
5.2.3 individualism
5.3 postmodernism
6 sociology&science
7 objectivity&values in sociology
8 sociology&social policy

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