Medicine & Drugs

Grace Pulling
Mind Map by Grace Pulling, updated more than 1 year ago
Grace Pulling
Created by Grace Pulling almost 7 years ago
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Master of Everything Biology - Drugs Mind Map on Medicine & Drugs, created by Grace Pulling on 04/21/2013.
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Medicine & Drugs
1 New Meds
1.1 Criteria: Effective, Safe (toxicity levels and side effects), Stable (under normal conditions or long time, taken in and out of body
1.2 Tests on cells, tissues then organs
1.2.1 Research, first trials (animals), alterations, testing on healthy humans (looking for side effects), tested on diseased patient, legal tests.
1.3 Double blind trials
1.3.1 patient nor doctor know
1.3.2 Placebo or real drug
1.3.2.1 Placebo: tests for phycological illness
1.3.3 Patient is given some treatment
1.4 Thalidomide
1.4.1 First sleeping pill, then used for morning sickness. Very safe for adults.
1.4.1.1 Was not tested on pregnant animals
1.4.1.1.1 Birth defects and severe limb deformalities
1.4.1.1.1.1 As of this new medication laws developed
1.4.1.1.1.1.1 Treat Leprosy, some cancers and autoimmune diseases
2 Effective Medicines
2.1 Statins
2.1.1 Lower Cholesterol levels by stopping liver from producing it
2.1.1.1 Improves balance of HDL's and LDL
2.1.2 Very popular among people, new
2.1.3 People haven't discovered long term side effects. i.e. liver damage
2.1.3.1 Some people like the drug and some people don't. GP's prescribe it because it is easy and profitable.
2.2 Prescribed Vs Non-Prescribed
2.2.1 non-prescribed wont hurt but wont make you feel better
2.2.1.1 Some can hurt even though they are natural as they contain chemicals
2.2.2 Only tests effectiveness if there is a double blind trial
2.2.2.1 Though this doesn't happen much because it is expensive
2.2.3 i.e. St John's Wort vs Prozac (depression)
2.2.3.1 SJW is herbal remedy used for 2000 years
2.2.3.1.1 SJW is just as effective; has fewer side effects, more effective than placebos
3 Drugs (all types)
3.1 Medicated or recreational: chemical changes in body, has side effects.
3.2 Legal
3.2.1 Examples: cigarettes (nicotine), coffee (caffeine), wine (ethanol)
3.2.1.1 Usually offer no long term benefits and cause harm to body. Except: medication as it is worth taking the risk.
3.2.2 Legal causes more health problems than illegal drugs do, as more people use them.
3.2.2.1 Why? they are more accessible, large companies have power (possibly over government),
3.3 Illegal
3.3.1 Examples: Cocaine, heroin, marijuana, ecstasy
3.3.1.1 Cannabis (legal in some areas): can cause mental illness.
3.3.2 Expensive: may turn to crime to pay, don't look after themselves, contract serious illnesses (STD's, HIV/Aids - taken via needle, Hepatitis)
3.4 Addiction:change chemical processes, become dependant, cannot manage properly without it, need more of drug to help you feel normal.
3.4.1 Withdrawal: aches, pains, sweating, shaking, headaches, craving.
3.5 Why do people take drugs? Make you feel happy, good about yourself, help to cope with everyday life, be part of the crowd.
3.5.1 Gateway drugs: e.g. cannabis could lead to the usage of heroin.
4 Drugs and Sport
4.1 Performance Enhancing Drugs
4.1.1 Anabolic Steroids: muscle mass e.g. weightlifters and sprinters, strong painkillers: compete and train with injuries or fatigue.
4.1.2 Drug to create more red blood cells for more oxygen (e.g. marathon/cyclists/long distant competitors), drugs to make alert or calm.
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