Food Technology - Functions of ingredients

evie.daines
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AS and GCSE Food Tech revision on the functions of ingredients

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evie.daines
Created by evie.daines over 5 years ago
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1 STARCH
1.1 Obtained from cereals, root vegetables or fruit
1.2 used to thicken liquids
1.3 When cold, starch forms a gel- this is made using gelatinsation
1.3.1 1. Starch particles do not dissolve in liquids, instead they form suspension
1.3.1.1 2. Stirring or agitating the liquid keeps the starch particles suspended
1.3.1.1.1 3. if it is not stirred the particles sink to the bottom and forms lumps
1.3.1.1.1.1 4. When liquid reaches 60oc the starch begins to absorb liquid and swell
1.3.1.1.1.1.1 5. At 80oc the particles break open and release starch- making the mixture thick and viscous. THIS IS GELATINISATION
1.3.1.1.1.1.1.1 6. The process is completed when the mixture reaches 100oc. the thickened liquid now forms a gel which solidifies when cooling
1.4 Modified starches
1.4.1 Modified to: Thicken instantly, allow sauces to be reheated, thicken low calorie dressings
2 FATS AND OILS
2.1 sources
2.1.1 Animal
2.1.2 Vegetable
2.1.3 Fish
2.2 Types of fat
2.2.1 Solid at room temperature
2.2.2 liquid at room temperature
2.3 Functions
2.3.1 flavour
2.3.2 Moistness
2.3.3 Seals (preserves)
2.3.4 Shortens/changes texture
2.3.5 aerates
2.3.6 Extends shelf life
3 SUGAR
3.1 Functions
3.1.1 Add sweetness
3.1.2 preserve
3.1.3 lighten product
3.1.4 decorate
3.1.5 enhance flavour
3.2 Transformations
3.2.1 DEXTRINISATION
3.2.1.1 starch is converted into a simple sugar and can be caramelised.
3.2.2 CARAMELISATION
3.2.2.1 The simple sugar thickens and turns brown and adds flavour
4 EGGS
4.1 Functions
4.1.1 Aeration
4.1.1.1 Whisking egg whites, stretches protein and incorporates air.
4.1.1.1.1 A foam is created by smaller bubbles
4.1.1.1.1.1 This foam remains stable because heat generated by whisking coagulates it.
4.1.2 Emulsification
4.1.2.1 If water and oil are forcefully mixed this occurs
4.1.2.1.1 however it remains in suspension unless and emulsifier is used
4.1.3 Coagulation
4.1.3.1 Eggs set and eventually solidify
4.1.3.1.1 they can be used for: thickening, binding and coating
4.1.4 other uses
4.1.4.1 can be used to garnish
4.1.4.2 can be used to glaze
4.2 Raw and partially cooked eggs can contain samonella
5 MEAT
5.1 ANimal
5.2 Poultry
5.3 Offal
5.4 Cooking meat
5.4.1 Tenderising
5.4.1.1 Marinating
5.4.1.2 Mechanical
5.4.1.3 Artificial substances
5.4.1.4 Artificial substances
5.4.2 protein is destroyed and meat changes colour
5.4.3 Connective tissue changes into gelatine
5.4.4 Overcooked meat becomes indigestible
5.4.5 non enzymix browning occurs on meat because protein reacts with simple sugars
5.5 Issues affecting meat consumption
5.5.1 religious beliefs
5.5.2 ethical factors
6 FISH
6.1 Types
6.1.1 Oily fish
6.1.2 Shellfish
6.1.2.1 molluscs
6.1.2.2 crustaceans
6.1.3 white fish
6.1.3.1 round fish
6.1.3.2 flat fish
6.2 Preparation and preservation
6.2.1 care taken with storage as fish is a protein and has a high risk
6.2.2 prepared and frozen to remain in peak condition
6.2.3 Smoking and canning
6.2.4 flesh is always tender
6.2.5 Can be steamed or poached
6.3 Environmental issues
6.3.1 Fish supplies are running out
6.3.1.1 Boats have restrictions
6.3.1.2 money has been invested into fish farms

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