Respiratory Mechanics

Susy Sanchez
Mind Map by Susy Sanchez, updated more than 1 year ago
Susy Sanchez
Created by Susy Sanchez about 7 years ago
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Bio 235 Mind Map on Respiratory Mechanics, created by Susy Sanchez on 04/21/2013.
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Respiratory Mechanics
1 Pulmonary Ventilation
1.1 Inspiration & Expiration
1.2 Volume change of thoracic cavity and lungs
1.2.1 Boyle's Law P~1/V
2 Quiet Breathing
2.1 Diaphragm: Increase thoracic volume
2.2 External Intercostal: raise ribs and increase thoracic volume
2.3 Expiration: passive recoil (elastin)
3 Deep Breathing
3.1 Inhalation
3.2 Scalene, Sternocleidomastoid
3.2.1 Raise ribs and increase thoracic volume
3.3 Expiration
3.3.1 Internal intercostal & abdominals
4 What controls breathing factors
4.1 Medulla Respiration Centers
4.1.1 Brainstem
4.1.2 Starts at the Medulla Oblongata (NTS)
4.1.3 Basic breathing rhythm
4.1.4 if medulla destroyed you will have trouble breathing
4.2 Pons Respiratory Centers
4.2.1 Influence breathing rhythm
4.2.2 Two respiratory centers
4.2.2.1 Apneustic Center
4.2.2.1.1 Stimulates inspiratory neurons of the medulla
4.2.2.1.2 Makes breathing increases
4.2.2.2 Pneumotaxic Center
4.2.2.2.1 Antagonizes apneustic center
4.2.2.2.1.1 Reduction of Breathing
4.3 Peripheral and Central Chemoreceptors
4.3.1 Influenced breathing rhythm (rate and depth)
4.3.2 Sensitive to blood CO2, O2 and pH
4.3.3 Location
4.3.3.1 Medulla Oblongata CENTRAL
4.3.3.2 Aortic and carotid bodies (PERIPHERAL)
5 Phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm
6 Intercostal nerves innervates the intercostal muscles
7 Chemoreceptors Mechanism
7.1 Central Chemoreceptors
7.1.1 Greatest effect on Ventilation
7.1.2 BBB impermeable to H+ bond enters CSF (lowest pH)
7.1.3 Formation of H2CO3 by carbonic anhydrase
7.1.4 H+ activates central chemoreceptors
7.2 Peripheral Chemoreceptors
7.2.1 Respond to blood pH levels
7.3 Most sensitive to PCO2 & pH
7.3.1 PCO2 influence blood pH
7.4 Hyperventilation
7.4.1 Low CO2 (HYPOCAPNIA)
7.5 Hypoventilation
7.5.1 Low CO2 (HYPERCAPNIA)
7.6 Adjusted to maintaIn 40mmHg PCO2
8 Effects of blood PO2 on Ventilation
8.1 low blood PO2 (Hypoxamia) has little affect on ventilation
8.1.1 Blood PO2 ust decrease from 100 mmHg to 50 mmHg to influence ventilation
9 Cerebral Cortex
9.1 Voluntary override
9.1.1 Breath hold
9.1.1.1 Panting
9.1.1.1.1 Sighing
9.1.1.1.1.1 Emotions
10 Other Ventilation Regulatory Mechanisms
10.1 Proprioreceptors
10.1.1 Temperature and pain receptors
10.1.1.1 Irritant receptors
10.1.1.1.1 Rapidly adapting respond to smoke smog and particulates
10.1.1.1.1.1 Causes cough sneezing bronchoconstriction
10.2 Hering-Stretch receptors activated during inspiration
10.2.1 Located in smooth muscle of airways
10.2.1.1 Inhibits respiratory centers to prevent overinflation of lungs
11 Assessing Pulmonary function
11.1 Spirometry
11.1.1 Tidal volume amount of air expired/breath
11.1.2 Tidal capacity: amount of air forcefully exhaled after a maximum inhalation
11.1.2.1 TV+IRV+ERV
11.1.2.1.1 Tv=tidal volume
11.1.2.1.1.1 Volume of gas inspired or expired in a unforced respiratory cycle
11.1.2.1.2 IRV=Inspiration Reserve Volume
11.1.2.1.2.1 Maximum volume of gas that can be inspired during forced breathing in addition
11.1.2.1.3 ERV= Expiration reserve volume
11.1.2.1.3.1 Maximum volume of gas that can be expired during forced breathing in addition
12 Terms
12.1 ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE
12.1.1 air in conducting Zone
12.2 FORCED EXPIRATORY VOLUME )FEV1)
12.2.1 Air exhaled in forced breath in 1 second
12.3 FORCED VITAL CAPACITY
12.3.1 Total amount of air exhaled in FEV test
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