Animal Testing - B603 Medical Ethics

Beth Coiley
Mind Map by Beth Coiley, updated more than 1 year ago
Beth Coiley
Created by Beth Coiley over 5 years ago


Mind Map on Animal Testing - B603 Medical Ethics, created by Beth Coiley on 05/01/2016.

Resource summary

Animal Testing - B603 Medical Ethics
  1. FACTS
    1. 84% on rodents
      1. 12% on fish, birds and amphibians
        1. 1.5% on other small animals (e.g. rabbits)
          1. 2.1% on large animals
            1. 0.3% on dogs and cats
              1. 0.15% on monkeys
                1. More than 2.5 million live animal experiments done in 2000
                  1. Halved since the 1970s
                2. ARGUMENTS FOR
                  1. It has helped to develop vaccines for life threatening diseases
                    1. Polio
                      1. Measles
                        1. Mumps
                          1. Rubella
                            1. TB
                              1. Rabies
                              2. Antibiotics, HIV drugs, insulin and cancer treatments all rely on animal experiments
                                1. Other methods of testing are not advanced enough
                                2. Scientists claim there is no difference between lab animals and humans that cannot be factored into tests
                                  1. Human life has greater intrinsic value than animal life
                                    1. Legislation protects all lab animals from mistreatment
                                      1. Millions of animals are killed for food each year - if anything, medical research is a more worthy death
                                      2. ARGUMENTS AGAINST
                                        1. Animal experiments can be misleading
                                          1. Their responses to drugs can be very different to humans'
                                            1. The stress they are put under can affect results and make them meaningless
                                            2. There are many successful alternatives
                                              1. E.g. human tissues
                                                1. Computer models
                                                  1. Skin corrosivity and irritation can be measured using the EpiDerm
                                                    1. 3D, human cell derived skin model
                                                  2. Animals are still used to test items like cleaning products and cosmetics
                                                    1. These benefit people much less than medicines
                                                    2. Animals have as much right to life as humans
                                                      1. Strict controls have not prevented abuse
                                                        1. It is impossible to measure how much pain animals are in
                                                          1. Deaths in research are unnecessary and morally no different from murder
                                                          2. CHRISTIAN RESPONSES FOR
                                                            1. Humans have a unique status because of their relationship with God
                                                              1. Humans were "made in God's image", unlike other species
                                                                1. Humans have souls - animals do not
                                                                  1. God put humans in charge of animals
                                                                  2. CHRISTIAN RESPONSES AGAINST
                                                                    1. God made his covenant with animals as well as with humans
                                                                      1. Jesus was vegetarian
                                                                        1. In God's ideal world, humans live in harmony with animals
                                                                          1. The Prophet Isaiah describes the Kingdom of heaven as one where humans and animals live together in peace
                                                                            1. E.g. Garden of Eden
                                                                            2. Animals are weak compared to humans - Jesus tells us to be kind to the weak and helpless
                                                                              1. God has the right to have his creations treated respectfully - to wrong animals is to wrong God
                                                                                1. To love those who cannot love you in the same way is a unique way of acting with generous love
                                                                                2. DENOMINATIONAL VIEWS
                                                                                  1. C OF E
                                                                                    1. Animals have intrinsic value
                                                                                      1. Recognises need for experiments but emphasises reducing pain caused
                                                                                      2. ROMAN CATHOLIC
                                                                                        1. Animals have intrinsic value
                                                                                          1. Tests are acceptable within reasonable limits
                                                                                            1. They must contribute to saving human lives
                                                                                              1. Has been criticised for making its statements too anthropocentric
                                                                                                1. Needless animal suffering described as "contrary to human dignity"
                                                                                            2. KEY FIGURES
                                                                                              1. ANDREW LINZEY
                                                                                                1. Leading modern christian writer on animal rights
                                                                                                  1. Animals should be treated according to their intrinsic god-given worth, not usefulness to humans
                                                                                                    1. God's love is intended "not just for human beings but for all creatures
                                                                                                    2. ST FRANCIS OF ASSISI
                                                                                                      1. Born in Italy in 1181
                                                                                                        1. A monk known for his love of animals
                                                                                                          1. Preached to the birds
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