Differential Class Achievement: Internal Factors

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Mind Map by kayleighisnotonfire, updated more than 1 year ago
kayleighisnotonfire
Created by kayleighisnotonfire over 5 years ago
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A-Level Sociology (Differential Achievement) Mind Map on Differential Class Achievement: Internal Factors, created by kayleighisnotonfire on 05/01/2016.

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Differential Class Achievement: Internal Factors
  1. Labelling
    1. Becker: teachers judged pupils on how well they fit the 'ideal pupil.' Work, conduct and appearence were key factors. M/C closet to the IP, W/C wasn't.
      1. Dunne and Gazeley: studied secondary schools. Teachers normalized the uncerachievement of the W/C, seemed unconcerned by it. Thought they could overcome the underachievement of the M/C. Major reason- they labelled W/C parents as uninterested with their children's education. Led to class differences on how teachers dealt with students: entering W/C in easier exams, extentions for M/C.
        1. Rist: studied American kindergarden. Teachers used information about the children's home backgrounds and appearences to place the children on different tables. Slow learners = W/C, seated futher away from the teacher, given lower ability reading books and less oppertunities to demonstrate their abillities. Fast Learners = M/C, seated closer to table. Given most encouragement.
          1. Keddie: higher streams taught more higher status knowledge (enabled students to get higher grades) where as lower streams were taught lower status knowledge.
          2. Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
            1. Rosenthal and Jacobson: gave school a standard IQ test, picked 20% of students at random and told school they were the 'spurters'. Returned a year later and found that 47% made progress.
              1. Douglas: children placed in lower stream at the age of 8, suffer a decline in IQ score by age 11. However had opposite effect by those placed in higher streams.
              2. Subcultures
                1. Lacey: differentiation is a process teachers use to catagorize students according to ability and behaviour. Polarisation is how pupils respond to streaming; pro or anti-school. Those placed in low streams tend to suffer a loss of self-esteem, search of different ways of gaining status. Reject school values (gives them status amongst peers). Impact as those boys in anti-schools were labelled as failures once they got to secondary school.
                  1. Woods: argues that there isn't just anti-school or pro-school. 1) Ingratiation: teachers pet. 2) Ritualism: going through the motions and staying out of trouble. 3) Retreatism: daydreaming and messing around. 4) Rebellion: outright rejection of the schools values.
                  2. Marketisation Policies
                    1. Bartlett: popular schools become oversubscribed and can be selective about students. Cream skim: select high ability students as cost less to teach, M/C. Silt shift: off load students who are less likely to get the best results. W/C and learning difficulties students.
                      1. Ball, Bowe and Gerwitz: 1) skilled choosers: understand nature of league tables, can evaluate the nature of the claims made by the schools. Have money, may pay for private ed. M/C. 2) semi-skilled choosers: concerned as want best possible education for students, not same level of skill as SC. Less likely to appeal decisions. Less likely to be M/C. Disconnected choosers: do not get involved in league tables, more likely to place child's happiness rather than the academic rep of the school. W/C.
                        1. Gilbourn and Youdell: league tables create an A-C econ, known as educational triage. 1) those who pass anyway: M/C, more likely to get A-C with little help. 2) Those with potential: those who will get A-C with help. Hopeless causes: no matter how much help they will get, will not get the grades. W/C.
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