Becker: teachers judged pupils on
how well they fit the 'ideal pupil.'
Work, conduct and appearence were
key factors. M/C closet to the IP, W/C
Dunne and Gazeley: studied secondary schools. Teachers normalized the
uncerachievement of the W/C, seemed unconcerned by it. Thought they could
overcome the underachievement of the M/C. Major reason- they labelled W/C
parents as uninterested with their children's education. Led to class differences on
how teachers dealt with students: entering W/C in easier exams, extentions for
Rist: studied American kindergarden. Teachers used information
about the children's home backgrounds and appearences to
place the children on different tables. Slow learners = W/C,
seated futher away from the teacher, given lower ability reading
books and less oppertunities to demonstrate their abillities. Fast
Learners = M/C, seated closer to table. Given most
Keddie: higher streams taught more higher status
knowledge (enabled students to get higher grades)
where as lower streams were taught lower status
Rosenthal and Jacobson: gave school a standard IQ
test, picked 20% of students at random and told
school they were the 'spurters'. Returned a year
later and found that 47% made progress.
Douglas: children placed in lower stream at the age of 8, suffer a
decline in IQ score by age 11. However had opposite effect by those
placed in higher streams.
Lacey: differentiation is a process teachers use to catagorize students
according to ability and behaviour. Polarisation is how pupils respond
to streaming; pro or anti-school. Those placed in low streams tend to
suffer a loss of self-esteem, search of different ways of gaining status.
Reject school values (gives them status amongst peers). Impact as
those boys in anti-schools were labelled as failures once they got to
Woods: argues that there isn't just anti-school or pro-school. 1)
Ingratiation: teachers pet. 2) Ritualism: going through the motions
and staying out of trouble. 3) Retreatism: daydreaming and messing
around. 4) Rebellion: outright rejection of the schools values.
Bartlett: popular schools become oversubscribed and can be selective about
students. Cream skim: select high ability students as cost less to teach, M/C. Silt
shift: off load students who are less likely to get the best results. W/C and learning
Ball, Bowe and Gerwitz: 1) skilled choosers: understand nature of league tables, can
evaluate the nature of the claims made by the schools. Have money, may pay for private ed.
M/C. 2) semi-skilled choosers: concerned as want best possible education for students, not
same level of skill as SC. Less likely to appeal decisions. Less likely to be M/C. Disconnected
choosers: do not get involved in league tables, more likely to place child's happiness rather
than the academic rep of the school. W/C.
Gilbourn and Youdell: league tables create an A-C econ, known as
educational triage. 1) those who pass anyway: M/C, more likely to
get A-C with little help. 2) Those with potential: those who will get
A-C with help. Hopeless causes: no matter how much help they will
get, will not get the grades. W/C.