A2 PE History-Nineteenth-century public schools

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Mind Map on A2 PE History-Nineteenth-century public schools, created by sophielee0909 on 02/11/2014.
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A2 PE History-Nineteenth-century public schools
1 CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC SCHOOLS & impacts
1.1 BOYS-Great energy & enthusiasm to be channeled into games
1.2 BOARDING- time available to play games
1.3 EXPANDING-houses created- became the hub of games
1.4 NON-LOCAL- great variety of regional games adopted & adapted by individual schools
1.5 SPARTAN- harsh treatment & living conditions prepared boys for competitive sport & adult life
1.6 CONTROLLED BY TRUSTEES- trustees- influential people keen to promote the school- invest in sporting success
1.7 ENDOWED- well endowed schools- recieved large gifts of money/property- could build facilities & empoly assistant masters & coaching professionals
1.8 FEE-PAYING- fees to develop facilities e.g gymnasia,swimming baths, courts. fee-payers were influential pupils & less restricted than scholars
1.9 GENTRY-influential families brought status & monay + influenced the types of activities brought into the schools
2 The Clarendon Report-1864
2.1 Queen Victoria commisioned- complaints about finances, buildings & management of Eton College.
2.2 19th century ofsted- concluded that each school had high status of games compared with academic work.
3 3 developmental stages of Athleticism
3.1 was a reflection of changes in society
3.2 caused social change in terms of sport & recreation
3.3 by mid 19th-century-
3.3.1 RSPCA successfully reducing cruelty to animals
3.3.2 Police & changing tastes & manners- reduced no of bare fist fights
3.3.3 headmasters keen to be seen as enlightened- wanted schools to be more refined & cultured & less wild- part of civilising process
3.4 Technical developments, Social relationships, Values linked to sport & games in each stage
4 Stage 1-(1790-1824) Boy culture, Bullying & Brutality
4.1 confrontational behaviour- absence of police force.
4.1.1 recreational activities organised by boys for enjoyment & to relieve boredom
4.1.1.1 Simple, natural facilities, limited local rules & simple equipment
4.1.1.1.1 unplanned & informal- limited organisation
4.1.1.1.1.1 masters had no influence/interest outside of the classroom
4.1.1.1.1.1.1 boys took part in trespassing, truancy, poaching & fighting- control lost- bullying & brutality- poor relationships
4.2 Public school expansion & melting pot
4.2.1 expansion of house system & need for more social control (order, stability & good behaviour)
4.2.2 games ranged from child like to barbaric- fierce mob games developed- reflection of society
4.2.3 Cricket was already codified- play by both classes- immediately adopted by schools- fox hunting adapted to hare & hounds
5 Stage 2-(1828-1842)- Dr Thomas Arnold & Social Control
5.1 Games reformed alongside schools- transition from pop rec to rat rec
5.1.1 RSPCA, railways
5.1.1.1 Schools & games grew in status- societal reforms.-more orderly
5.1.1.1.1 games more organised & growth of the house system
5.1.1.1.1.1 more regular inter house games- more structured- specialist kit, equipment & facilities
5.1.1.1.1.1.1 Improving relationships & restrictions on bullying & brutality
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 games used to achieve social control- Dr Thomas Arnold (behaviour, punishments, sixth form, curriculum, muscular christianity)
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 made chapel key- delve christian message-new moral code- better suited to civilised society
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.2 more trusting & sympathetic sixth form relationship- raised status of sixth form- role models- link between masters & boys
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.3 status, regularity & organisation of games increased
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.4 inter house cricket & football kept them out of trouble & tired them out.
5.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.5 Muscular Christianity- play for the glory of god & not extrinsic values.
6 Stage 3- (1842-1914)- Cult of Athleticism
6.1 games became rationalised and respectable- had high status- inter-house & sports days
6.1.1 games played obsessively and were often compulsory each day- part of curriculum- schools prided on sporting prowess
6.1.1.1 highly organised and codified- NGB's established
6.1.1.1.1 fully technically developed kit & specialist facilities- skill rather than force & specialist coaching
6.1.1.1.1.1 specialist facilities constructed & schools acquired more space.
6.1.1.1.1.1.1 more friendly between boys & masters- less bullying
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 games played in order to develop character- physical endeavour and moral integrity
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 second melting pot- universities-standardised game
6.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1.1 oxbridge graduates returning as assistant masters-as a result of sporting prowess.
7 Girls schools athleticism.-delay in development
7.1 traditional role of women- lack of education
7.2 anxiety over wearing of revealing clothing for sport
7.3 status of women in society- mainly focussed on music, dancing & posture- inappropriate to be competitive & exuberant
7.4 medical concerns- strenuous activity could prevent child bearing & due to physical inferiority
7.5 fewer prominent personalities to match Dr Thomas Arnold
8 Impact of public schools
8.1 Stage 1-young people could develop independence and self-sufficiency. negative- bullying & severe punishment
8.2 Stage 2- more controlled & less violent/spontaneous. more regular & in school grounds. more inter-house competitions. house system still around today
8.2.1 games used to establish social control- Dr Thomas Arnold-Rugby school- better behaviour- punishments, trust & respect.
8.3 Stage 3- organisation increased-codification- regular fixtures- NGB formation by old boys, encouraged by headmaster, time,space & expertise available, uni melting pot & standardisation of rules.
8.3.1 character development- PIES- Physical- increased skill & health, Intellectual- organisational,administration, management, Emotional-independence & teamwork, Social- loyalty, friendships, old boys societies established. Fair play, value of exercise, all-rounders, competitive experiences. Now- pe still focusses on development of whole child, still helps with preparing for competitive society, old boys societies still exist.
9 Sports through the stages of public schools
9.1 Bathing & swimming- 1-informal, natural facilities. 2-regular, regulated, for hygiene and safety, part of healthy lifestyle. 3- technical development, specialist facilities, teachers
9.2 Athletics- 1-Informal running & exploring countryside, hare & hounds & steeplechase more formal. 3-Steeple-chase & cross country- annual sports days.(exeter college)
9.3 Football- 1- mob games & first melting pot form home. 2-more formalised rules & inter house competitions. 3- FA & RFU- rules & competitions
9.4 Cricket- 2-transferred directly to public schools- non-violent, rules & upper-class involvement. 2-mass inter-house participation. 3-technical development-coaching, inter-school fixtures-MCC.
9.5 Tennis- 1-informal hand & ball games against walls-fives. 2-fives courts built, rackets & squash more formal alternatives. 3-fives continued recreationally, rackets more formal. lawn tennis had low status-popular in girls public schools.
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